Supply Chain Management in African Agriculture: Innovative Approaches to Commodity Value Chains



HARDBACK by Alhassan, Abdul-Razak; Abunga Akudugu, Mamudu


1ST ED. 2020
173 pages
26 AUG 2020


This book examines supply and value chains in African agriculture, providing both a thorough analysis of existing practices and practical business models for future development. It examines why Africa is a net importer of food, despite its vast agricultural potential, using the tomato value chain in Ghana as a case study. The book explores commodity value chain structures; commodity clusters, arenas, linkages and business models; systematic constraints within commodity value chains; and value chain profiling in practice among others. It would benefit policy makers, policy implementers, development practitioners, agri-entrepreneurs, researchers and all those who have interests in the transformation of African agriculture. It will also be an excellent reference material for students of agriculture management, agribusiness, agricultural economics, and rural development.


CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND ISSUES 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Profiling the Tomato Value Chain 1.2.1 Cluster and products identification 1.2.2 Market map for inputs, services and outputs 1.2.3 Market channels and actors 1.2.4 Value chain map 1.2.5 Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) 1.2.6 Upgrading needs 1.3 Conceptual Descriptions and Benefits of Clustering 1.3.1 The concept of agriculture clusters 1.3.2 The concept of agri-food value chain clusters 1.3.3 The concept of tomato value chain clusters 1.3.4 Benefits of clustering in the tomato value chain 1.4 Tomato Production, Imports, Exports and Price Trends in Ghana 1.4.1 The state of tomato production in Ghana 1.4.2 Production trends compared with regional neighbours 1.4.3 Imports and exports trends compared with regional neighbours 1.4.4 Trends in tomato and agro-chemicals prices 1.5 Ghana's International Trade Relations and Policy Objectives 1.5.1 Multilateral trading systems 1.5.2 Regional integration: ECOWAS 1.5.3 Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the EU 1.5.4 Bilateral trade relations 1.5.5 Objectives of Ghana's Trade Policies 1.6 Tomato Industry Programmes and Special Policies 1.7 Food Safety 1.8 Technology and Innovation 1.9 Market and Governance Structure CHAPTER TWO: THE VALUE CHAIN STRUCTURE 2.1 Domestic Market 2.2 Competitive Position in Domestic Market 2.3 Consumer Preferences 2.4 Market Opportunities 2.5 Competitive Position in Exports Markets 2.6 Market Channels 2.6.1 Open-air and roadside retail markets 2.6.2 Supermarkets 2.6.3 Small grocery stores 2.6.4 Processing companies 2.6.5 Institutional markets 2.7 Functions and Actors 2.7.1 Inputs and services suppliers 2.7.2 Producers 2.7.3 Intermediaries 2.8 Overall Status of the Tomato Value Chain CHAPTER THREE: TOMATO CLUSTERS, ARENAS, LINKAGES AND BUSINESS MODELS 3.1 Identification of Tomato Clusters and Tomato Products for Intervention 3.1.1 Navrongo area tomato cluster 3.1.2 Bolgatanga area tomato cluster 3.1.3 Bawku area tomato cluster 3.1.4 Tamale area tomato cluster 3.1.5 Techiman area tomato cluster 3.1.6 Akomadan area tomato cluster 3.1.7 Accra area tomato cluster 3.1.8 Akatsi area tomato cluster 3.1.9 Ho area tomato cluster 3.1.10 Begoro area tomato cluster 3.1.11 Product identification 3.3 Domestic Capacity and Economic Impact, Market and Profitability Analyses 3.3.1 Domestic capacity and economic impact 3.3.2 Market analysis 3.3.3 Profitability analyses of irrigated, rain-fed & greenhouse tomato production 3.4 The Action Arenas 3.4.1 The inputs arena 3.4.2 The services arena 3.4.3 The Production Arena 3.4.4 Output marketing arena 3.5 Value Addition, Vertical and Horizontal Linkages 3.5.1 Analysis of value added 3.5.2 Vertical linkages 3.5.3 Horizontal linkages 3.6 Business Models for Tomato Value Chain Development 3.6.1 Market led business model 3.6.2 Inputs dealer led business model for fresh and industrial tomatoes 3.6.3 Nucleus farmer/Processor led business model 3.6.4 Supermarket led business model CHAPTER FOUR: PEIORITY PRODUCTS, SUPPORTING SERVICES AND INSTITUTIONS 4.1 Priority Tomato Products 4.2 Supporting Services 4.2.1 Seed suppliers 4.2.2 Seedlings producers 4.2.3 Fertilizers and chemicals dealers 4.2.4 Packaging suppliers 4.2.5 Agricultural equipment suppliers 4.2.6 Extension services and training 4.3 Regulatory Institutions 4.3.1 Quality assurance institutions 4.3.2 The Ministry of Food and Agriculture 4.4 Limited/Missing Services 4.4.1 Post-harvest handling facilities 4.4.2 Soil testing facilities 4.4.3 Specialized extension agents 4.4.4 Financial services CHAPTER FIVE: SYSTEMIC CONSTRAINTS WITHIN THE VALUE CHAIN 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Production Constraints 5.2.1 Farm finance 5.2.2 Seeds for planting 5.2.3 Irrigation facilities for dry season tomato cultivation 5.2.4 Marketing of produce 5.2.5 Cost of production 5.2.6 Land preparation 5.2.7 Diseases, pests and weed control problems 5.2.8 Land tenure or land acquisition problems 5.2.9 Seasonality 5.3 Inputs and Services Supply Constraints 5.3.1 Access to and availability of good quality inputs 5.3.2 Quality of inputs 5.3.3 Knowledge and skills on the application of inputs 5.3.4 Availability of credit 5.3.5 Agricultural extension services 5.3.6 Research and development linkages 5.4 Output Marketing Constraints 5.4.1 Dominance by the network of traders ( Market Queens ) 5.4.2 Lack of storage, transport and processing facilities 5.4.3 Fluctuating market prices 5.4.4 Lack of trust between traders and farmers 5.4.5 Lack of collective bargaining and marketing 5.4.6 Poor road networks 5.5 Business Enabling Environment (BEE) Constraints CHAPTER SIX: BENCHMARKING AND RECOMMENDED PRODUCTION PRACTICES 6.1 Benchmarking and Gap Assessments of the Tomato Value Chain 6.2 MOFA Recommended Farm Management Practices 6.2.1 Suitable varieties 6.2.2 Source of planting material 6.2.3 Climatic requirements/ Site selection 6.2.4 Land preparation 6.2.5 Propagation 6.2.6 Planting 6.2.7 Weed control 6.2.8 Irrigation 6.2.9 Nutrient requirements 6.2.10 Fertilizer application 6.3 Pests and Diseases Control 6.4 Yield, Harvesting and Market Requirements CHAPTER SEVEN: MARKET OPPORTUNITIES AND UPGRADING NEEDS 7.1 Market Opportunities 7.2 Critical Success Factors, Constraints and Segment Deficiencies 7.3 Upgrading Needs 7.3.1 Improving strategic productivity 7.3.2 Improving operational productivity 7.3.3 Improving the quality of supply chain management 7.3.4 Improving human resources across the value chain 7.3.5 Improving the business environment 7.4 Upgrading and Deepening the Tomato Value Chain 7.4.1 Upgrading and deepening through adding operations 7.4.2 Upgrading and deepening through specialization 7.4.3 Upgrading and deepening through new investments 7.4.4 Upgrading and deepening through vertical integration 7.4.5 Upgrading and deepening through joint commercial ventures 7.5 Business Model Identification and Replication 7.5.1 Communicating the case for investment 7.5.2 Product positioning 7.5.3 Increasing product value through standards 7.6 Creating the Enabling Environment 7.7 Public-Private Dialogue (PPD 7.8 Improving Value Chain Financing 7.9 Opportunities for Improvements 7.9.1 Training of farmers 7.9.2 Training of input suppliers 7.9.3 Certification of seeds 7.9.4 Strengthen credit linkages 7.9.5 Formation of robust FBOs 7.10 Cross Cutting Issues 7.10.1 HIV and AIDS 7.10.2 Gender 7.10.3 Environment, climate change and green economy 7.10.4 Vulnerability 7.10.5. Population 7.10.6 Decentralization 7.10.7 Culture 7.10.8 Security 7.10.9 Disaster 7.10.10 Water Security