Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective




New product available - 9780138019969
552 pages
08 JUL 2005


Introduction to Counseling provides an overview of counseling and the helping professions from the perspective of art and science: the science of counseling that generates a knowledge base proven to promote competency and efficacy in the practitioner, and the art of using this knowledge base to build skills that can be applied sensitively to clients in a multicultural society. The Third Edition has been organized into three sections: An overview of counseling and the counseling process; developing a personal approach to counseling from a multicultural perspective; and special approaches and settings. The text stays true to its original focus by using the concept of art and science as a unifying theme. This new edition addresses topics of multicultural counseling and diversity issues such as gender, culture, and sexual orientation in each chapter, communicating how multiculturalism can be integrated into all aspects of counseling rather than viewed as a separate entity.


Each chapter concludes with Summary. I. AN OVERVIEW OF COUNSELING AND THE COUNSELING PROCESS. 1. An Overview of Counseling.Welcome to the Field of Counseling.What Is Counseling?The Art and Science of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Counseling as Storytelling.Counseling and Psychotherapy.Differentiating Formal from Informal Helping.Personal Qualities of Effective Helpers.The Helping Profession.Counseling: Past, Present, and Future.Counseling from a Historical Perspective.Future Trends. 2. Professional Preparation and Ethical and Legal Issues.Becoming a Professional Counselor.Formal Study and Professional Affiliation.Certification and Licensure.Continuing Education.Professional Involvement.Ethical-Legal Issues.The Art and Science of Ethical-Legal Issues.Ethical Issues.Legal Issues.Special Ethical and Legal Issues.Ethical-Legal Decision Making.Clinical Examples. 3. The Counseling Process.The Art and Science of the Counseling Process.The Six Stages of the Counseling Process.Stage One: Relationship Building.Stage Two: Assessment and Diagnosis.Stage Three: Formulation of Counseling Goals.Stage Four: Intervention and Problem Solving.Stage Five: Termination and Follow-Up.Stage Six: Research and Evaluation.Listening Skills.Primary Listening Skills.Secondary Listening Skills.Counseling Vignette.Effective Listening Don'ts. Effective Listening Do's A Final Thought Regarding Listening Skills.Recent Trends in the Counseling Process.Emotions.Postmodern Trends.Brief-Counseling Approaches.Brief-Solution-Focused Counseling.Common Problems for Beginning Counselors.Focusing on the First Issue in a Session.Overlooking Physical or Medical Issues.Wanting to Rescue Clients from Their Unhappiness.Having Perfectionist Tendencies.Having Unrealistic Expectations.Getting Carried Away with the Latest Technique.Getting Lost in the Counseling Process.Using Inappropriate Phrases.Having an Excessive Desire to Help.Having an Excessive Need to Be Liked.Getting Too Emotionally Involved.Taking Things Too Personally.Having Difficulty Differentiating Between Normal and Abnormal.Being Uncertain about Self-Disclosure.Being Uncertain about Confidentiality.Diversity Issues. 4. Assessment and Diagnosis.The Art and Science of Assessment and Diagnosis. Assessment and Diagnosis.Assessment.Evaluation of Tests.Administration and Interpretation of Tests.Test Bias.Types of Tests.Environmental/Ecological Assessment.Diagnosis.Historical Perspective.The DSM-IV-TR.The Clinical Interview.Treatment Planning.Diversity and Postmodern Issues in Assessment and Diagnosis. 5 Counseling Research and Evaluation.The Art and Science of Research and Evaluation.The Purpose of Research and Evaluation.Theory, Research, and Practice.Research, Evaluation, and Counselor Accountability.The Contribution of Research to the Counseling Field.Overview of the Types of Research.Types of Research Methodologies.Shortcomings of Traditional Counseling Research.Diversity and Postmodern Issues in Research and Evaluation.II. DEVELOPING A PERSONAL APPROACH TO COUNSELING FROM A MULTICULTURAL PERSPECTIVE. 6. Developing a Personal Approach to Counseling from a Multicultural Perspective.The Art and Science of Developing a Personal Approach to Counseling with a Multicultural Perspective.Developing a Personal Approach to Counseling.An Eight-Stage Model for Developing a Personal Approach.Stage One: Self-Assessment.Stage Two: Survey of Supportive Disciplines.Stage Three: Overview of Major Counseling Theories.Stage Four: Intensive Study of One Counseling Theory.Stage Five: Sensitivity to Individual Differences.Stage Six: Integration of Techniques from Counseling Theories.Stage Seven: Implementation.Stage Eight: Research and Evaluation.Multicultural Counseling.Terms and Concepts.Theoretical Perspectives for Multicultural Counseling.Potential Challenges in Multicultural Counseling.Counseling as a White Middle-Class Activity.Social Class.Gender.The Intrapsychic Perspective.Sexual Orientation.Stereotyping.Communication Problems.Faulty Assumptions.Test Bias.Prejudice.Racism.The Efficacy of Multicultural Counseling.Suggestions for Incorporating a Multicultural Perspective. Beliefs, Knowledge, and Skills.World View.Identity Development.Methods to Evaluate Counseling Theories.Guidelines for Multicultural Counseling. 7. The Classic Theories of Freud, Adler, and Jung.The Art and Science of the Classic Theories.An Overview of Freud, Adler, and Jung.Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory.Background Information.Theory of Personality.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Techniques.Contemporary Issues.Freudian Brief Approaches to Counseling.Summary and Evaluation.Adler's Individual Psychology.Background Information.Theory of Personality.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Techniques.Contemporary Issues.Adlerian Brief Approaches to Counseling.Postmodern Trends and Adlerian Psychology.Summary and Evaluation.Jung's Analytic Psychology.Background Information.Jung's Theory of Personality.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Techniques.Contemporary Issues.Jungian Brief-Counseling Approaches.Summary and Evaluation.The Classic Theories and Their Use in Contemporary Practice.Diversity Issues in the Classic Theories.Brief Counseling and the Classic Theories. 8 Experiential Theories and Approaches.The Art and Science of Experiential Counseling.Experiential Counseling.Experiential Theories.Person-Centered Therapy.Background Information.Theory of Personality.View of Human Nature.Key Concepts.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Techniques.Summary and Evaluation.Gestalt Therapy.Background Information.Theory of Personality.View of Human Nature.Key Concepts.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Techniques.Summary and Evaluation.Existential Therapy. Background Information.Theory of Personality.Key Concepts.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Techniques.Summary and Evaluation.Creative Arts Therapy.Professional Issues.Music Therapy.Art Therapy.Drama Therapy.Dance Therapy.Bibliotherapy.Multimodality CAT.Summary and Evaluation of CAT.Research Trends in Experiential Counseling.Brief Approaches to Experiential Counseling.Diversity Issues in Experiential Counseling. 9 Cognitive-Behavioral Theories.The Art and Science of Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling.Cognitive-Behavioral Theories.Behavior Therapy.Background Information.Theory of Personality.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Summary and Evaluation.Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT).Background Information.Theory of Personality.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Summary and Evaluation.Cognitive Therapy.Background Information.Theory of Personality.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Summary and Evaluation.Transactional Analysis (TA).Background Information.Theory of Personality.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Summary and Evaluation.Reality Therapy.Background Information.Theory of Personality.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Summary and Evaluation.Feminist Therapy.Background Information.Theory of Personality.Theory of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Summary and Evaluation.Special Issues in Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling. Cognitive-Behavioral Theories from a Brief-Counseling Perspective.Diversity Issues.Postmodern Trends.III. SPECIAL APPROACHES AND SETTINGS. 10. Marriage and Family Counseling.The Art and Science of Marriage and Family Counseling.Evolution of Marriage and Family Counseling.Professional Issues and Organizations.Theoretical Foundations.Systems Theory.Key Concepts.Evaluation of Systems Theory.The Family Life Cycle.Evaluation of the Family Life Cycle.Marriage Counseling.The Counseling Process.Skills-Based Marriage Counseling.Marital Assessment.Family Counseling.Psychodynamic Family Counseling.Experiential Family Counseling.Structural Family Counseling.Strategic Family Counseling.Adlerian Family Counseling.Postmodern/Social Constructionist Trends in Family Counseling.The Counseling Process.Diversity Issues in Marriage and Family Counseling.Evaluation of Marriage and Family Counseling. 11. Child and Adolescent Counseling.The Art and Science of Child and Adolescent Counseling.Children and Adolescents from a Historical Perspective.Children.Adolescents.Developmental Theories.Cognitive Theories.Theories of Moral Development.Psychosocial Theories.Developmental Psychopathology.The Classic Theories.Emerging Developmental Trends.Treatment Issues.Assessment Procedures.Child and Adolescent Counseling Goals.Child and Adolescent Counseling Research.Special Counseling Approaches for Children and Adolescents.Guidelines for Child and Adolescent Counseling.Special Problems of Children and Adolescents.Child Abuse and Neglect.Depression. Suicide.Antisocial Behavior.Diversity and Postmodern Issues in Child and Adolescent Counseling. 12. Group Counseling.The Art and Science of Group Counseling.Group Counseling.Group Counseling from a Historical Perspective.Comparison to Individual and Family Counseling.Group Versus Individual Counseling.Group Versus Family Counseling.Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Counseling.Group Goals and Processes.Types of Groups.Problem Solving and Group Process.Group Size, Composition, and Duration.Use of Coleaders.Pregroup Screening and Orientation.Stages in Group Counseling.Brief-Solution-Focused Group Counseling.Dealing with Disruptive Group Members.Common Mistakes of Group Leaders.Qualities of Effective Group Leaders.Diversity Issues. 13. Career Counseling.The Art and Science of Career Counseling.Evolution of Career Counseling.Theoretical Foundations.Career Development Theories.Career Decision-Making Theories.Treatment Issues.Personal Versus Career Counseling.Assessment Instruments.The Process of Career Counseling.Intervention Strategies.Special Issues.Career Counseling for Women.Computer-Assisted Career Counseling.Diversity Issues in Career Counseling. 14. School Counseling.The Art and Science of School Counseling.A Comprehensive Developmental Model for School Counseling.A Developmental Perspective.Role and Function of School Counselors.A Historical Perspective.The Current ASCA Role Statement, Definition, and Standards.Role and Function by Grade Level and Setting.Special Skills and Problems.Consultation.Counseling Exceptional Students. Special Problems.Future Trends in School Counseling.Diversity Issues.Brief-Solution-Focused Counseling.Use of Technology. 15. Mental Health Counseling.The Art and Science of Mental Health Counseling.Professional Issues.The Role and Function of Mental Health Counselors.Direct Intervention Strategies.Indirect Intervention Strategies.Categories of Mental Health Services.Problems of Living.Mental Disorders.Strategies for Suicidal Clients.Causes.Myths about Suicide.Treatment Strategies.Strategies for Clients with Substance-Abuse Problems.Diagnosis.Special Treatment Issues.Counseling Goals.Treatment Strategies.Stages of Change.Prevention of Relapses.Current Trends and Perspectives.Postmodern Trends.Mental Health Counseling and the Internet.Ecosystemic Mental Health Counseling.Diversity Issues.Managed Care.References.Name Index.Subject Index.Credits.