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Small Animal Internal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses
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SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY TECHNICIANS AND NURSES

EBOOK BY MERRILL, LINDA;
ISBN
9781118318270
IMPRINT
WILEY
 
 
EDITION
PUBLISHER
WILEY
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FORMAT
EBOOK
PAGES
608 pages
PUBLICATION DATE
1 JAN 2012

DESCRIPTION

Small Animal Internal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians and Nursesis the first comprehensive resource on internal medicine written for the veterinary technician. Organized by body system, each chapter discusses pertinent diseases, from clinical signs, diagnostic testing, and prevalence to treatment options and nursing considerations. Published in association with the Academy of Internal Medicine for Veterinary Technicians, this book offers both a thorough grounding in the foundations of internal medicine for students and new veterinary technicians and detailed, advanced information suitable for experienced veterinary technicians.

CONTENTS

Contributors xiii Preface xv Chapter 1 Physical Examination 1 Charting 1 Goals of the consultation appointment 2 Conclusion 9 Chapter 2 Endocrinology 11 Section 1 Pituitary Gland 11 Growth hormone disorders 11 Diabetes insipidus 13 Section 2 Thyroid Glands 14 Canine hypothyroidism 14 Feline hyperthyroidism 16 Canine thyroid tumors 20 Section 3 Parathyroid Glands 22 Hypoparathyroidism 22 Hyperparathyroidism 23 Section 4 Adrenal Glands 25 Hypoadrenocorticism: Addison's disease 25 Hyperadrenocorticism: Cushing's disease 26 Pheochromocytoma 29 Section 5 Pancreas 31 Feline diabetes mellitus 31 Canine diabetes mellitus 37 Canine diabetic ketoacidosis 40 Insulinomas 41 Glucagonoma 45 Section 6 Miscellaneous Hormones, Glands, and Disease 47 Calcitriol 47 Erythropoietin 48 Gastrin 50 Gastrinoma 51 The kinins 52 Melatonin 53 Natriuretic peptides 55 Renin 57 Somatostatin 59 Other rare neuroendocrine tumors 60 Bibliography 62 Chapter 3 Musculoskeletal 69 Section 1 Anatomy and Physiology 69 The skeletal system 69 The muscular system 71 Section 2 Selected Diagnostics in MusculoskeletalDisease 72 Arthrocentesis 72 Muscle biopsy 73 Section 3 Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System 73 Inflammatory joint disease 73 Noninflammatory joint disease 76 Neuromuscular diseases 77 Inflammatory myopathies 78 Hepatozoonosis 79 Neoplasia 80 Section 4 General Musculoskeletal Examination 81 Section 5 Musculoskeletal Therapy 82 Veterinary rehabilitation therapy 82 Palliative radiation therapy 88 Section 6 Musculoskeletal Nutrition 89 Nutrients 90 Antioxidants 91 Energy and growth 91 Osteoarthritis 92 Body condition scoring 92 Body condition score uses 92 Muscle condition scoring 93 Bibliography 96 Chapter 4 The Neurological Examination 99 Clinical signs and the relevant anatomy 99 Seizures 102 Encephalopathies 103 Cerebral neoplasia 105 Inflammatory/infectious etiologies: encephalitis 105 Meningitis 107 Cranial nerve syndromes 107 Spinal diseases 109 Neuromuscular diseases 113 Diagnostic testing 114 Pharmacology 119 Nursing considerations 121 Neurological glossary 122 Suggested readings 124 Chapter 5 Thrombotic Disorders in Small Animal Medicine 127 Physiology 127 Thrombotic disorders 129 Diagnosis 130 Therapy 132 Client education 134 Suggested readings 134 Chapter 6 Respiratory 137 Section 1 Upper Airway Disease 137 Anatomy and physiology 137 Diseases of the upper airway 137 Nutritional considerations 140 Anesthetic and analgesic considerations 140 Section 2 Mediastinal Disease 141 Anatomy and physiology 141 Mediastinitis 141 Pneumomediastinum 141 Mediastinal masses 141 Section 3 Lower Airway Disease 142 Anatomy and physiology 142 Clinical signs 142 Diagnostic testing 142 Specific airway diseases and treatment 143 Anesthetic and analgesic considerations 146 Section 4 Pulmonary Parenchymal Disease 146 Anatomy and physiology 146 Clinical signs 146 Diagnostic testing 147 Treatment 148 Diseases 148 Nutritional considerations 151 Anesthetic and analgesic considerations 151 Section 5 Pleural Disease 152 Anatomy and physiology 152 Clinical signs 152 Diagnostic testing 152 Treatment 154 Nutritional considerations 156 Anesthetic and analgesic considerations 156 Section 6 Anesthesic and Analgesic Considerations in Respiratory Disease 156 Premedication 156 Induction 157 Maintenance anesthesia 157 Monitoring 157 Recovery 157 Section 7 Feeding Considerations for Respiratory Disease 157 Bibliography 158 Chapter 7 Hematology 161 Section 1 Anatomy and Physiology 161 The circulatory system 161 The lymphatic system 162 The spleen 162 The coagulation system 163 Section 2 Red Blood Cell Disorders 163 Anemia 163 Polycythemia 167 Transfusion medicine 167 Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia 171 Section 3 Leukocyte Disorders 174 Methods for determining the leukogram 174 Disorders of neutrophils 175 Disorders of eosinophils 180 Disorders of basophils 180 Disorders of monocytes 180 Disorders of lymphocytes 181 Section 4 Platelet, Coagulation, and Inherited Disorders 182 Diseases of coagulation 182 Disorders of platelets 184 Breed-related disorders 188 Bibliography 189 Chapter 8 Gastrointestinal 193 Section 1 Clinical Signs and Examination of the GI Patient 193 Patient history 193 Physical examination 194 Clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders 194 Conclusion 197 Section 2 Selected Diagnostics in Gastrointestinal Disease 197 Laboratory evaluation 198 Microscopic fecal evaluation 198 Bacteriologic examination 199 Virologic examination 199 Occult blood 199 Alpha1-protease inhibitor 200 Imaging 200 Special tests 201 Conclusion 201 Section 3 Gastrointestinal Disease 201 Oral disease 201 Esophageal disorders 204 Gastric disease 207 Alimentary tract parasites 213 Diseases of the small intestine 216 Diseases of the large intestine 235 Section 4 Pharmacology 238 Antacids 238 Antiemetics 239 Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs 240 Antibiotics 241 Gastromucosal protectants 241 Digestive enzymes 241 Laxatives 241 Section 5 Feeding Tubes 242 Feeding tubes 242 Esophagostomy tube placement 243 Gastrostomy tube placement 244 Jejunostomy tube placement 247 Conclusion 247 Feeding tube management and complications 247 Section 6 Food Intolerance and Food Allergy 251 Clinical signs 251 Causes 251 Diagnostics 251 Treatment 251 Elimination diets 252 Proteins 252 Carbohydrates 252 Prebiotics and probiotics 253 Section 7 Anesthesia and Analgesia Considerations in Gastrointestinal Disease 255 Premedication 255 Induction 255 Maintenance anesthesia 256 Monitoring 256 Recovery 256 Bibliography 256 Chapter 9 Liver 263 Section 1 Hepatic Disease 263 Acute hepatitis 263 Chronic hepatitis 265 Copper-associated chronic hepatitis 266 Hepatic lipidosis 268 Toxic hepatopathy 270 Hepatocutaneous syndrome 272 Congenital vascular anomaly 274 Liver neoplasia 275 Section 2 Posthepatic Disease 276 Feline cholangitis complex 276 Biliary cysts 278 Extrahepatic biliary obstruction 279 Gallbladder mucocoeles 280 Section 3 Nutrition in Liver Disease 282 Protein 283 Fats 283 Carbohydrates 283 Fiber 283 Vitamins and minerals 284 Feeding plan 284 Section 4 Anesthesia and Analgesia Considerations in Hepatic Disease 284 Premedication 284 Induction 284 Maintenance anesthesia 285 Monitoring 285 Recovery 286 Bibliography 286 Chapter 10 Urinary and Renal Diseases 289 Section 1 Urinary Anatomy and Physiology 289 Section 2 Clinical Signs 291 Section 3 Urinary Diseases 292 Chronic kidney disease 292 Acute renal failure 293 Urinary tract infections 294 Pyelonephritis 295 Urolithiasis 295 Prostatic diseases 298 Lower urinary tract disease in cats 299 Ectopic ureters 299 Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence 300 Protein-losing nephropathy 301 Urinary neoplasia 301 Section 4 Urinary Diagnostics and Therapeutic Implications 302 Urinalysis 302 Complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile 306 Proteinuria 309 Blood pressure 311 Urine culture 313 Section 5 Urinary Tract Biopsy Techniques 315 Aspiration biopsy 315 Biopsy 316 Sample handling 319 Postbiopsy nursing care 319 Section 6 Urinary Imaging 319 Radiology 319 Ultrasound 321 Cystoscopy and vaginoscopy 323 Computed tomography 323 Section 7 Renal and Urinary Disease Pharmacology 324 Fluid therapy and correction of electrolyte imbalances 327 Section 8 Anesthetic and Analgesic Considerations 335 Anesthesia 335 Pain management 336 Section 9 Nutritional Considerations 336 Chronic kidney disease 336 Urolithiasis 338 Feline idiopathic cystitis 341 Bibliography 341 Chapter 11 Infectious Diseases 349 Section 1 Infectious Bacterial Diseases 349 Bartonella 349 Lyme borreliosis 350 Canine brucellosis 352 Ehrlichiosis 353 Helicobacter-associated disease 355 Leptospirosis 357 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 360 Mycobacterial disease 361 Mycoplasmal diseases 363 Plague 365 Section 2 Fungal Diseases 366 Histoplasmosis 366 Aspergillosis 368 Coccidioidomycosis 368 Cryptococcosis 369 Blastomycosis 370 Section 3 Protozoal Diseases 374 Amebiasis 374 Babesiosis 374 Giardia 375 Trichomoniasis 375 Leishmaniasis 376 Toxoplasmosis 376 Neosporosis 377 Cytauxzoonosis 378 Hepatozoonosis 379 Section 4 Infectious Viral Diseases 381 Canine and feline herpesvirus 381 Influenza 383 Papillomas 384 Section 5 Infectious Disease Testing 385 Disease prevention and control in the small animal hospital 395 Bibliography 400 Chapter 12 Vaccine, Vaccination, and Immunology 403 Section 1 The Immune Response and Cancer Immunotherapy 403 Innate and adaptive immune response 403 Humoral and cell-mediated immunity 404 Immunomodulation 404 Cancer vaccines 404 Cytokine immunotherapy 405 Summary 405 Section 2 Laboratory Diagnostics in Immunology 405 Serology 405 Biopsy techniques 407 Section 3 Immunosuppressive Medications 409 Corticosteroids 409 Immunosuppresives 411 Less commonly used immunosuppressives 412 Novel immunosuppressive medications 412 Immunomodulating medications 413 Conclusion 413 Section 4 Vaccines and Vaccination 413 Vaccination strategies 413 Canine vaccines 416 Feline vaccines 422 Vaccinations and adverse reactions 427 Bibliography 429 Chapter 13 Pain and Its Management 433 Veterinary technician as pain management team leader 433 What is pain? 434 Pathophysiology of pain 434 Types of pain 435 Causes of pain 436 General approach to pain control 436 General rules of thumb in managing pain 436 Questions to consider 437 How to be an analgesic advocate for your patient 437 Clinical signs and means of detection 438 Pain scoring systems 439 Analgesics 439 Nursing care as analgesic 446 Clinical examples 447 Conclusion 448 Bibliography 448 Chapter 14 Nursing 449 Section 1 Occupational Health and Safety 449 Making the work place safe 449 Health and safety committees 449 Hazards in the workplace 450 Chemotherapy safety 452 Conclusion 453 Section 2 Pharmacological Implications in Internal Medicine 453 Drug calculations, compatibilities, dosing, and administration 453 Constant rate infusion 453 Drug compatibilities 454 Drug dosage adjustments in patients with heart, renal, and hepatic insufficiency or failure 454 Oxygen therapy 460 Drug calculations 461 Client education 462 Section 3 Nutritional Support 463 Nutritional support 463 Energy balance: weight loss versus weight gain 468 Refeeding syndrome 471 Section 4 Diagnostic Procedures 474 Cystocentesis 474 Abdominocentesis 475 Thoracocentesis 478 Urinary catheters 480 Bone marrow collection 484 Section 5 Endoscopy 487 Flexible endoscope 487 Videoendoscope 489 Instrumentation 489 Rigid endoscopes 490 Reprocessing 492 Patient and equipment preparation 495 Section 6 Selected Nursing Considerations of Internal Medicine Patients 495 Thermoregulation 495 Fever or hyperthermia? 495 Hypothermia 498 The sepsis syndrome 499 Bibliography 504 Appendix Accredited State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories 509 Abbreviations 515 Index 521