Carbon Fibers and Their Composites




1200 pages
01 MAY 2005


Most literature pertaining to carbon fibers is of a theoretical nature. Carbon Fibers and their Composites offers a comprehensive look at the specific manufacturing of carbon fibers and graphite fibers into the growing surge of diverse applications that include flameproof materials, protective coatings, biomedical and prosthetics applications, textiles, batteries and fuel cells, automotive applications, construction, and even musical instruments. This useful guide provides a hands-on approach to the fabrication of carbon fibers. The book begins with a blueprint of the international history and development of carbon fiber, clearly defined terminology for all forms of solid carbon products, and the properties for elemental carbon and its allotropic forms. It then elaborates upon precursor materials, relevant surface treatment, and sizing for each carbon fiber type available in the world market. Several chapters also examine the types of matrices, their properties, and fracture mechanics of thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, carbon, glass, metal, and ceramics matrices. Carbon Fibers and their Composites reveals straightforward guidelines for the day-to-day operations of a carbon fiber plant, such as safety testing, quality control, design of equipment, packaging, air flow/dust control, maintenance, and environmental policies. Based on over 30 years of experience in the field, the author offers insight and possible solutions to the problems associated with production and testing of carbon fibers and their related composites. He details the use of analytical chemistry techniques, instrumentation requirements, and statistics to evaluate the results. Carbon Fibers and their Composites offers an excellent clarification of how carbon fibers yield reinforced composites, their physical and chemical characteristics, the diverse manufacturing techniques for each type, and the advantages they offer to a variety of applications.


PREFACE Introduction Recommended terminology for the Description of carbon as a Solid A Bibliography of Books on Carbon Fibers and Their Composites Acknowledgements STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON ATOM Introduction - The Element Carbon, Its Isotopes and Allotropes Structure of Carbon THE FORMS OF CARBON The Allotropes of Carbon The Carbon Phase Diagram Diamond Graphite Pyrolytic Carbon and Pyrolytic Graphite Glass-like Carbon Carbon Fibers Graphite Whiskers Vapor-Grown Carbon Fibers (VGCF) and Catalytic Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CCVD) Filaments Other Forms of Carbon New Forms of Carbon Summary of Allotropic Forms of Carbon HISTORY AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON FIBERS The Early Inventors Work in the USA Work in Japan Work in the UK with PAN Precursors Early UK Prepreggers PRECURSORS FOR CARBON FIBER MANUFACTURE Introduction PAN Precursors Cellulosic Precursors Pitch Precursors Other Precursors CARBON FIBER PRODUCTION USING A PAN PRECURSOR Introduction Carbon Fiber Manufacturers World Supply of PAN-based Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Costs of PAN-based Carbon Fiber Choice of Precursor Desirable Attributes of a PAN-based Precursor Polymer and its Subsequent Production Types of PAN-based Carbon Fiber A Carbon Fiber Production Line CARBON FIBER PRODUCTION USING A CELLULOSIC BASED PRECURSOR Introduction Current Production Mechanisms for the Pyrolysis and Carbonization Stages of PAN Carbon Fibers CARBON FIBER PRODUCTION USING A PITCH BASED PRECURSOR Introduction Choice of Melt Spun Precursor The Manufacturing Process The Structural Ordering and Morphology of Mesophase Pitch Fibers PRODUCTION OF VAPOR GROWN CARBON FIBERS (VGCF) Introduction Preparation of VGCF Growth Process Mode of Tensile Failure Mechanical Properties SURFACE TREATMENT AND SIZING OF CARBON FIBERS Introduction Oxidative Processes Plasma Non-oxidative Surface Treatment - Whiskerization Effect of Surface treatment Upon the Fiber Properties Coupling Agents Sizing Carbon Fiber GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT FOR CARBON FIBER PLANT Introduction Precursor Handling Drive Systems Ovens for Oxidation Removal of Effluent Gases Evolved in the Oxidation Process Application of an Antistatic Finish Plaiter Table LT Carbonization Furnace LT Furnace Exhaust Removal HT Carbonization Furnace Typical Calculations for the Design of an HT Furnace Sodium Removal HM Heat Treatment Furnace Surface Treatment Sizing Drying On-Line Collection Off-line Winding Packaging Exhaust System Dust Extraction Application of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) OPERATION OF CARBON FIBER PLANT AND SAFETY ASPECTS Introduction Serendipity Maintenance Protecting Electrical Equipment Air Flow Measurement Collimation and Spreading of Oxidized and Carbonized Fiber Splicing Small Tows Drive Systems and Rotating Rollers Precursor Creel Oxidation Plant Pyrolysis Plant Low Temperature Carbonization Furnace High Temperature Carbonization Furnace High Modulus Furnace Surface Treatment Sizing Winding Dealing with Emissions Treatment of Cyanide Effluent Protecting the Environment Safety Committee COSH-H Requirements Toxicology of Carbon Fibers The Risks of Carbon Fiber Composites in a Fire TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINING THE STRUCTURE OF CARBON FIBERS Introduction Optical Microscope Scanning Electron Microscope Transmission Electron Microscope X-Ray Diffraction Auger Electron Spectroscopy X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy Infrared Spectroscopy Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Raman Spectroscopy Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy Atomic Foce Microscopy or Scanning Force Microscopy POLYMER MATRICES FOR CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES Selected Thermoset resins Selected Thermoplastic Resins Improving the Bond with Carbon Fiber/Thermoplastics CARBON FIBER CARBON MATRIX COMPOSITES Introduction Selection of Materials for Carbon-Carbon Processing Methods of Processing Carbon-Carbon Matrix Materials Some Thoughts of Carbon-Carbon Processng Provision for Providing Oxidation Protection CARBON FIBER REINFORCED CERAMIC MATRICES Introduction Cement, Concrete, and Gypsum Matrices Glass Matrices Ceramic Matrices CARBON FIBERS IN METAL MATRICES Introduction Metal Matrix Composites Carbon Fiber for Reinforcement of Metal Matrices Coating Processes to Improve Wettability Metal Matrices Techniques for Fabricating Carbon Fiber Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites TESTING PAN PRECURSOR, VIRGIN CARBON FIBERS, CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES AND RELATED PRODUCTS Introduction PAN Precursor testing Testing Oxidized PAN Fiber (OPF) and Virgin Carbon Fiber Carbon Fiber Tow Testing Carbon Fiber Yarn and Fabric Testing Matrix Testing Carbon Fiber Prepreg Testing Carbon Fiber Composite Testing Testing Carbon Fiber Filled Thermoplastics Instrumental Analysis Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Supplement STATISTICS AND STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) Frequency Distribution Location of Data Measures of Dispersion Standard Error Sample Correlation Coefficient Linear Regression Normal Distribution Weibull Distribution Variation Control Chart Methods Statistical Process Control Charts Capability Index Failure Mode Effect Analysis QUALITY CONTROL In-house testing Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards The ISO 9000 Family of Standards and Quality Systems Quality Gurus Quality Circles Total Quality Management Quality Costing PROPERTIES OF CARBON FIBERS The Role of Carbon Fibers Types of Carbon Fibers Available on the World Market Tensile Properties Factors Affecting Composite Strength The Importance of Critical Aspect Ratio Elastic Constants Flexural Properties Effect of surface treatment and Sizing on Composite Properties Compressional Properties Thermal Properties Thermal Expansion of Carbon Fibers Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Fibers Creep Properties Impact Strength and Fracture Toughness Fatigued Properties Electrical Properties Chemical Resistance Friction and Wear Hybrid Composites Some Selected Properties of Composites MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES FOR CARBON FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES IN THERMOSET AND THERMOPLASTIC MATRICES Carbon Fiber Reinforcement and Architecture Core Materials Manufacturing Processes for Carbon Fibers in Thermoset Matrices Carbon Fibers in Thermoplastic Matrices Hybrid Composites DESIGN Design Considerations Micromechanics Selection of Materials Elastic Behavior of Multidirectional Laminates Choice of Composite Manufacturing Method Bonding and Joining Fabrication Testing and Inspection Smart Devices Design Cases THE USES OF CARBON FIBERS Uses of Oxidized PAN Fiber (OPF) Uses of Virgin Carbon Fiber Electrical Applications Thermal Insulation Packing Materials and Gaskets Carbon Fibers in Thermoset Matrices Carbon Fibers in Thermoplastic Matrices Carbon Fibers in Carbon-Carbon Applications Carbon Fibers in Cement and Concrete Carbon Fibers in Glass Matrices Carbon Fibers in Ceramic Matrices Carbon Fibers in Metal Matrices Other End Uses for Carbon Fibers LOOKING TO THE FUTURE The Future The Production Process Carbon Fiber Composite Manufacturing Techniqes Quality Management Standartds Recycling Innovative Developments Conclusions Appendices