Geological Engineering




700 pages
01 DEC 2010


A thorough knowledge of geology is essential in the design and construction of infrastructures for transport, buildings and mining operations; while an understanding of geology is also crucial for those working in urban, territorial and environmental planning and in the prevention and mitigation of geohazards. Geological Engineering provides an interpretation of the geological setting, integrating geological conditions into engineering design and construction, and provides engineering solutions that take into account both ground conditions and environment. This textbook, extensively illustrated with working examples and a wealth of graphics, covers the subject area of geological engineering in four sections: *Fundamentals: soil mechanics, rock mechanics and hydrogeology *Methods: site investigations, rock mass characterization and engineering geological mapping *Applications: foundations, slope stability, tunnelling, dams and reservoirs and earth works *Geohazards: landslides, other mass movements, earthquake hazards and prevention and mitigation of geological hazards As well as being a textbook for graduate and postgraduate students and academics, Geological Engineering serves as a basic reference for practicing engineering geologists and geological and geotechnical engineers, as well as civil and mining engineers dealing with design and construction of foundations, earth works and excavations for infrastructures, buildings, and mining operations.


PART I. FUNDAMENTALS Chapter 1 - Introduction to Geological Engineering 1.1 Definition and Importance of Geological Engineering 1.2 The Geological Environment and its Relation with Engineering 1.3 Geological Factors and Geotechnical Problems 1.4 Methods and Applications in Engineering Geology 1.5 Information Sources in Engineering Geology 1.6 How this Book is Structured Recommended Reading/References Chapter 2 - Soil Mechanics and Engineering Geology of Sediments 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Soil Description and Classification 2.3 Flow of Water through Soils 2.4 Effective Stress 2.5 Consolidation and Compressibility 2.6 Shear Strength of Soils 2.7 Influence of Mineralogy and Fabric on the Geotechnical Properties of Soils 2.8 Engineering Geology Characteristics of Sediments 2.9 Problematic Soils Recommended Reading/References Chapter 3 - ROCK MECHANICS 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Rocks 3.3 Stress and Strain in Rocks 3.4 Strenght and Deformability of Intact Rock 3.5 Discontinuities 3.6 Strenght and Deformability of Rock Masses 3.7 In situ Stress 3.8 Rock Mass Classifications Recommended Reading/References Chapter 4 - HYDROGEOLOGY 4.1 Hydrogeological Behaviour of Soils and Rocks 4.2 Hydrogeological Parameters 4.3 Flow. Darcy's Law and Fundamental Flow Equations in Porous Media 4.4 Evaluation Methods for Hydrogeological Parameters 4.5 Solution Methods 4.6 Chemical Properties of Water Recommended Reading/References PART II. METHODS Chapter 5 - SITE INVESTIGATIONS 5.1 Planning and Design 5.2 Preliminary Investigations 5.3 Engineering Geophysics 5.4 Boreholes, Trial Pits, Trenches and Sampling 5.5 In situ Tests 5.6 Geotechnical Instrumentation Recommended Reading/References Chapter 6 - ROCK MASS DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISATION 6.1 Methodology 6.2 Description and Zoning 6.3 Intact Rock Characterisation 6.4 Description of Discontinuities 6.5 Rock Mass Parameters 6.6 Rock Mass Classification and Characterisation Recommended Reading/References Chapter 7 - ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL MAPPING 7.1 Definition 7.2 Types of Maps 7.3 Mapping Methods 7.4 Data Collection 7.5 Applications Recommended Reading/References PART III. APPLICATIONS Chapter 8 - FOUNDATIONS 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Shallow Foundations 8.3 Deep Foundations 8.4 Foundations in Rock 8.5 Foundations in Complex Geological Conditions 8.6 Site Investigation Recommended Reading/References Chapter 9 - SLOPES 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Site Investigations 9.3 Factors Influencing Slope Stability 9.4 Types of Slope Failure 9.5 Stability Analysis 9.6 Stabilization Measures 9.7 Monitoring and Control 9.8 Slope Excavation Recommended Reading/References Chapter 10 - TUNNELS 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Site Investigation 10.3 Influence of Geological Conditions 10.4 Geomechanical Design Parameters 10.5 Rock Mass Classifications for Tunneling 10.6 Tunnel Support Design using Rock Mass Classifications 10.7 Excavability 10.8 Tunnel Excavation and Support Methods in Rock 10.9 Tunnel Excavation and Support Methods in Soil 10.10 Geological Engineering during Tunnel Construction Recommended Reading/References Chapter 11 - DAMS AND RESERVOIRS 11.1. Introduction 11.2 Types of Dams and Auxiliary Structures 11.3 Site Investigation 11.4 Engineering Geology Criteria for Dam Selection 11.5 Geological Materials for Dam Construction 11.6 Reservoir Water Tightness 11.7 Permeability of Dam Foundations 11.8 Reservoir Slope Stability 11.9 Engineering Geological Conditions for Dam Foundations 11.10 Seismic Actions and Induced Seismicity Recommended Reading/References Chapter 12 - EARTH STRUCTURES 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Design Methodology 12.3 Materials 12.4 Implementation and Control 12.5 Embankments on Soft Soils 12.6 Embankments on Slopes Recommended Reading/References PART IV. GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS Chapter 13 - LANDSLIDES AND OTHER MASS MOVEMENTS 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Slope Movements 13.3 Investigation of Landslides 13.4 Corrective Measures 13.5 Collapse and Subsidence 13.6 Prevention of Risks from Mass Movements Recommended Reading/References Chapter 14 - SEISMIC HAZARD 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Faults and Earthquakes 14.3 Seismicity Studies 14.4 Seismic Hazard Analysis 14.5 Seismic Site Response 14.6 Ground Effects Induced by Earthquakes 14.7 Applications to Geological Engineering Recommended Reading/References Chapter 15 - PREVENTION OF GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS 15.1 Geological Hazards 15.2 Hazard, Risk and Vulnerability 15.3 Safety Criteria in Geological Engineering 15.4 Prevention and Mitigation of Geological Hazards 15.5 Hazard and Risk Maps Recommended Reading/References Appendix A: Charts for Circular and Wedge Failure Analysis Appendix B: Pressure Units Conversion Chart Appendix C: Symbols and Acronyms Appendix D: List of Boxes Appendix E: Permissions to Reproduce Figures and Tables Index