Introduction to Transportation Engineering




0 pages
01 NOV 2001


The second edition of Introduction to Transportation Engineering has been developed to provide a concise yet thorough introduction to intermodal transportation. One of its underlying concepts is that the basic techniques and principles of transportation engineering are of wide application. For practical reasons, the major emphasis is often on highways, but care is taken to show how basic concepts and techniques apply to different modes. The book strives to provide a background in transportation planning, analysis, and design while emphasizing the social, economic, and political context of transportation engineering. It places major emphasis on important practical topics such as geometric design, Highway Capacity Manual methods, and traffic signal timing, and also emphasizes important theoretical topics such as the fundamental techniques of traffic analysis and the economic theory underlying transportation demand modeling. The text has been revised and updated to reflect the 2000 revision of the Highway Capacity Manual. The numbers of flow charts, diagrams, and photos have been increased from the previous edition. The text also offers new open-ended design exercises pertaining to common design problems in transportation such as horizontal and vertical alignment of roads, railways, or runways; traffic design for highways; planning and design of traffic control; and design of bus routes and schedules. These exercises respond to ABET-2000 accreditation requirements, particularly to civil engineering program criteria that require design experiences integrated throughout the professional component of the curriculum.


1 Introduction 1.1 Transportation Engineering 1.2 The Transportation System 1.2.1 Scope and Functional Organization 1.2.2 Objectives and Constraints 1.3 Modes of Transportation 1.3.1 Highways 1.3.2 Urban Transit 1.3.3 Air 1.3.4 Rail 1.3.5 Water 1.3.6 Pipelines 1.3.7 Other Modes 1.4 Institutional Structure 1.5 Careers in Transportation Engineering 1.6 Summary References Exercises 2 Transportation System Issues and Challenges 2.1 Traffic Congestion 2.2 Traffic Safety 2.2.1 Trends 2.2.2 Organization Responsibilities 2.2.3 Legal Concerns 2.2.4 The Challenges 2.3 Equality of Access 2.4 Environmental Protection 2.4.1 Site-Specific Impacts 2.4.2 System-Level Impacts 2.5 New Technology 2.6 Funding 2.7 Institutional Arrangements 2.8 Summary References Exercise 3 Introduction to Physical Design of Transportation Facilities 3.1 The Design Process 3.2 Design Standards 3.3 Design Speed and Sight Distance 3.4 Design Documents 3.5 Summary References Problems Exercises Computer Exercise 4 Geometric Design 4.1 Geometric Cross Section 4.2 Vertical Alignment 4.2.1 Tangent Grades 4.2.2 Vertical Curves 4.3 Horizontal Alignment 4.3.1 Horizontal Tangents 4.3.2 Circular Curves 4.3.3 Transition Curves 4.4 Superelevation 4.5 Coordination of Horizontal and Vertical Alignment 4.6 Intersections and Interchanges 4.7 Design Software 4.8 Summary References Problems Computer Exercises Design Exercises 5 Earthwork 5.1 Earthwork Cross Sections 5.2 Earthwork Volumes 5.3 Mass Diagrams 5.4 Summary References Problems Computer Exercises Design Exercise 6 Surfaces and Guideways 6.1 Highway Pavements 6.1.1 Mix Design 6.1.2 Components 6.1.3 Structural Design of Pavement 6.1.4 Asphalt Concrete Pavement Design 6.1.5 The AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design Procedure 6.1.6 The Hveem Method 6.1.7 Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Design 6.1.8 Pavement Maintenance and Rehabilitation 6.2 Railroad Track 6.2.1 Overall Track Structure 6.2.2 Structural Design of Track 6.2.3 Major Track Components: Ballast 6.2.4 Major Track Components: Ties 6.2.5 Major Track Components: Rails 6.2.6 Track Maintenance 6.3 Summary References Problems Exercises 7 Mitigation of Environmental Impacts 7.1 Noise 7.1.1 Measurement of Sound 7.1.2 Airport Noise Mitigation 7.1.3 Highway and Rail Noise Mitigation 7.2 Encroachments on Natural Habitats 7.2.1 Design Modifications 7.2.2 Construction of Artificial Habitats 7.2.3 Management of Habitat in Right-of-Way 7.3 Stormwater Management 7.4 Hazardous Wastes and Soil Contamination 7.5 Summary References Problems Exercises 8 Traffic Analysis Techniques 8.1 Space-Time Relationships 8.1.1 Direct Graphical Solutions 8.1.2 Development of Analytical Solutions 8.1.3 Development of Simulation Models 8.1.4 Nontrajectory Space-Time Diagrams 8.2 Queuing Analysis 8.2.1 Queuing Theory Fundamentals 8.2.2 Queue Discipline 8.2.3 Stochastic Queuing Models 8.2.4 Transportation Applications of Queuing Theory 8.2.5 Queue Density, Storage and Spillback 8.3 Network Analysis 8.4 Summary References Problems Computer Exercises 9 Traffic Flow 9.1 Traffic Data 9.2 Traffic Flow Models 9.3 Traffic Data Analysis 9.3.1 Flows and Volumes 9.3.2 Speed and Travel Time Data 9.3.3 Other Traffic Data 9.4 Summary References Problems Computer Exercise 10 Capacity and Level of Service 10.1 Air Traffic Capacity 10.2 Rail Capacity 10.3 Highway Capacity 10.3.1 Basic Freeway Segments 10.3.2 Ramps and Ramp Juctions 10.3.3 Two-Lane Highways 10.3.4 Signalized Intersections 10.4 Summary References Problems Design Exercise 11 Traffic Control 11.1 Traffic Signals 11.1.1 Definitions 11.1.2 Fixed-Time Controllers 11.1.3 Traffic-Actuated Controllers 11.2 Signal Timing 11.3 Signal Coordination 11.4 Freeway Management Systems 11.4.1 Incident Detection and Response 11.4.2 Ramp Metering 11.5 Rail Traffic Control 11.6 Air Traffic Control 11.7 Summary References Problems Exercises Design Exercises 12 Transit Operations 12.1 Route Planning 12.2 Route Location 12.3 Stop Location 12.4 Route Schedules 12.4.1 Headways 12.4.2 Constructing Timetables 12.4.3 Branch Route Schedules 12.5 Vehicle and Labor Scheduling 12.6 Control of Operations 12.7 Route Evaluation 12.8 Summary References Problems Exercises Computer Exercises Design Exercise 13 Transportation Demand Analysis 13.1 Travel Behavior 13.2 Travel Demand Modeling 13.3 Trip Generation Models 13.4 Trip Distribution Models 13.5 Mode Choice Models 13.6 Trip Assignment Models 13.7 Sequential Modeling Process: An Example 13.8 Summary References Problems Computer Exercises 14 Transportation Planning 14.1 Perspectives on the Planning Process 14.1.1 Historical Background 14.1.2 The Rational Planning Process 14.1.3 The Political Planning Process 14.2 Planning Regulations 14.3 Transportation and Air Quality Planning 14.3.1 Clean Air Act Provisions 14.3.2 Coordination of Air Quality and Transportation Plans 14.3.3 Air Quality Models 14.4 Planning Studies 14.4.1 Types of Planning Studies 14.4.2 Case Study: Dulles Access Road Corridor Transit Alternatives Study 14.4.3 Case Study: Green River Valley Transportation Action Plan 14.4.4 Case Study: Montreal Subway Extension Impact Analysis 14.5 Planning Study Organization 14.6 Summary References Exercises 15 Transportation Project Evaluation 15.1 Economic Evaluation Techniques 15.1.1 Life Cycle Cost Analysis 15.1.2 Benefit-Cost Analysis 15.1.3 Other Economic Analysis Techniques 15.2 Environmental Impact Assessment 15.2.1 Environmental Impact Issues 15.2.2 Transportation Environmental Impacts 15.3 Summary References Problems Exercises Computer Exercises Appendix A: Statistical Tables Appendix B: Tables and Charts for Pavement Design Appendix C: Highway Capacity Manual Materials (Metric) Index