Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics Pearson New International Edition, plus MasteringPhysics without eText




0 pages
31 JUL 2013


For the calculus-based General Physics course primarily taken by engineers and science majors (including physics majors). This long-awaited and extensive revision maintains Giancoli's reputation for creating carefully crafted, highly accurate and precise physics texts. Physics for Scientists and Engineers combines outstanding pedagogy with a clear and direct narrative and applications that draw the student into the physics. The new edition also features an unrivaled suite of media and on-line resources that enhance the understanding of physics. This book is written for students. It aims to explain physics in a readable and interesting manner that is accessible and clear, and to teach students by anticipating their needs and difficulties without oversimplifying. Physics is a description of reality, and thus each topic begins with concrete observations and experiences that students can directly relate to. We then move on to the generalizations and more formal treatment of the topic. Not only does this make the material more interesting and easier to understand, but it is closer to the way physics is actually practiced.


CONTENTS OF VOLUME 1 APPLICATIONS LIST xiiPREFACE xivAVAILABLE SUPPLEMENTS AND MEDIA xxiiNOTES TO STUDENTS (AND INSTRUCTORS) ON THE FORMAT xxivCOLOR USE: VECTORS, FIELDS, AND SYMBOLS xxv CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION, MEASUREMENT, ESTIMATING1-1 The Nature of Science1-2 Models, Theories, and Laws1-3 Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures1-4 Units, Standards, and the SI System1-5 Converting Units1-6 Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating*1-7 Dimensions and Dimensional AnalysisSUMMARYQUESTIONSPROBLEMSGENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 2: DESCRIBING MOTION: KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION2-1 Reference Frames and Displacement2-2 Average Velocity2-3 Instantaneous Velocity2-4 Acceleration2-5 Motion at Constant Acceleration2-6 Solving Problems2-7 Freely Falling Objects*2-8 Variable Acceleration; Integral Calculus*2-9 Graphical Analysis and Numerical IntegrationSUMMARYQUESTIONSPROBLEMSGENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 3: KINEMATICS IN TWO OR THREE DIMENSIONS; VECTORS3-1 Vectors and Scalars3-2 Addition of Vectors-Graphical Methods3-3 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar 3-4 Adding Vectors by Components 3-5 Unit Vectors 3-6 Vector Kinematics 3-7 Projectile Motion 3-8 Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion 3-9 Relative Velocity SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 4: DYNAMICS: NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 4-1 Force 4-2 Newton's First Law of Motion 4-3 Mass 4-4 Newton's Second Law of Motion 4-5 Newton's Third Law of Motion 4-6 Weight-the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force 4-7 Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: Free-Body Diagrams 4-8 Problem Solving-A General Approach SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 5: USING NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION, CIRCULAR MOTION, DRAG FORCES 5-1 Applications of Newton's Laws Involving Friction 5-2 Uniform Circular Motion-Kinematics 5-3 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 5-4 Highway Curves: Banked and Unbanked *5-5 Nonuniform Circular Motion *5-6 Velocity-Dependent Forces: Drag and Terminal Velocity SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 6: GRAVITATION AND NEWTON'S6 SYNTHESIS 6-1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation 6-2 Vector Form of Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation 6-3 Gravity Near the Earth's Surface; Geophysical Applications 6-4 Satellites and Weightlessness 6-5 Kepler's Laws and Newton's Synthesis *6-6 Gravitational Field 6-7 Types of Forces in Nature *6-8 Principle of Equivalence; Curvature of Space; Black Holes SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 7: WORK AND ENERGY 7-1 Work Done by a Constant Force 7-2 Scalar Product of Two Vectors 7-3 Work Done by a Varying Force 7-4 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Principle SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 8: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 8-1 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces8-2 Potential Energy 8-3 Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation 8-4 Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy 8-5 The Law of Conservation of Energy 8-6 Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems 8-7 Gravitational Potential Energy and Escape Velocity 8-8 Power *8-9 Potential Energy Diagrams; Stable and Unstable Equilibrium SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 9: LINEAR MOMENTUM 9-1 Momentum and Its Relation to Force 9-2 Conservation of Momentum 9-3 Collisions and Impulse 9-4 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions 9-5 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 9-6 Inelastic Collisions 9-7 Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions 9-8 Center of Mass (CM) 9-9 Center of Mass and Translational Motion *9-10 Systems of Variable Mass; Rocket Propulsion SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 10: ROTATIONAL MOTION 10-1 Angular Quantities 10-2 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities 10-3 Constant Angular Acceleration 10-4 Torque 10-5 Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia 10-6 Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics 10-7 Determining Moments of Inertia 10-8 Rotational Kinetic Energy 10-9 Rotational Plus Translational Motion; Rolling *10-10 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down? SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 11: ANGULAR MOMENTUM; GENERAL ROTATION 11-1 Angular Momentum-Object Rotating About a Fixed Axis 11-2 Vector Cross Product; Torque as a Vector 11-3 Angular Momentum of a Particle 11-4 Angular Momentum and Torque for a System of Particles; General Motion 11-5 Angular Momentum and Torque for a Rigid Object 11-6 Conservation of Angular Momentum *11-7 The Spinning Top and Gyroscope *11-8 Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces *11-9 The Coriolis Effect SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 12: STATIC EQUILIBRIUM; ELASTICITY AND FRACTURE 12-1 The Conditions for Equilibrium 12-2 Solving Statics Problems 12-3 Stability and Balance 12-4 Elasticity; Stress and Strain 12-5 Fracture *12-6 Trusses and Bridges *12-7 Arches and Domes SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 13: FLUIDS 13-1 Phases of Matter 13-2 Density and Specific Gravity 13-3 Pressure in Fluids 13-4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure 13-5 Pascal's Principle 13-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer 13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle 13-8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity 13-9 Bernoulli's Equation 13-10 Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: Torricelli, Airplanes, Baseballs, TIA *13-11 Viscosity *13-12 Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation, Blood Flow *13-13 Surface Tension and Capillarity *13-14 Pumps, and the Heart SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 14: OSCILLATIONS 14-1 Oscillations of a Spring 14-2 Simple Harmonic Motion 14-3 Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 14-4 Simple Harmonic Motion Related to Uniform Circular Motion 14-5 The Simple Pendulum *14-6 The Physical Pendulum and the Torsion Pendulum 14-7 Damped Harmonic Motion 14-8 Forced Oscillations; Resonance SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 15: WAVE MOTION15-1 Characteristics of Wave Motion 15-2 Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal 15-3 Energy Transported by Waves 15-4 Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave *15-5 The Wave Equation 15-6 The Principle of Superposition 15-7 Reflection and Transmission 15-8 Interference 15-9 Standing Waves; Resonance *15-10 Refraction *15-11 Diffraction SUMMARY QUESTIONSPROBLEMSGENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 16: SOUND 16-1 Characteristics of Sound 16-2 Mathematical Representation of Longitudinal Waves 16-3 Intensity of Sound: Decibels 16-4 Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns *16-5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition 16-6 Interference of Sound Waves; Beats 16-7 Doppler Effect *16-8 Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom *16-9 Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 17: TEMPERATURE, THERMAL EXPANSION, AND THE IDEAL GAS LAW 17-1 Atomic Theory of Matter 17-2 Temperature and Thermometers 17-3 Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 17-4 Thermal Expansion *17-5 Thermal Stresses 17-6 The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature 17-7 The Ideal Gas Law 17-8 Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law 17-9 Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Number *17-10 Ideal Gas Temperature Scale-a Standard SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 18: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 18-1 The Ideal Gas Law and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature 18-2 Distribution of Molecular Speeds 18-3 Real Gases and Changes of Phase 18-4 Vapor Pressure and Humidity *18-5 Van der Waals Equation of State *18-6 Mean Free Path *18-7 Diffusion SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 19: HEAT AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 19-1 Heat as Energy Transfer 19-2 Internal Energy 19-3 Specific Heat 19-4 Calorimetry-Solving Problems 19-5 Latent Heat 19-6 The First Law of Thermodynamics 19-7 Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics; Calculating the Work 19-8 Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy 19-9 Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas 19-10 Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 20: SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 20-1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics-Introduction 20-2 Heat Engines 20-3 Reversible and Irreversible Processes; the Carnot Engine 20-4 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps 20-5 Entropy 20-6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 20-7 Order to Disorder 20-8 Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death *20-9 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law *20-10 Thermodynamic Temperature Scale; Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics *20-11 Thermal Pollution, Global Warming, and Energy Resources SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 21: ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD 21-1 Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation 21-2 Electric Charge in the Atom 21-3 Insulators and Conductors 21-4 Induced Charge; the Electroscope 21-5 Coulomb's Law 21-6 The Electric Field 21-7 Electric Field Calculations for Continuous Charge Distributions 21-8 Field Lines 21-9 Electric Fields and Conductors 21-10 Motion of a Charged Particle in an Electric Field 21-11 Electric Dipoles *21-12 Electric Forces in Molecular Biology; DNA *21-13 Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostatics SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 22: GAUSS'S LAW 22-1 Electric Flux 22-2 Gauss's Law 22-3 Applications of Gauss's Law *22-4 Experimental Basis of Gauss's and Coulomb's Law SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 23: ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 23-1 Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference 23-2 Relation between Electric Potential and Electric Field 23-3 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges 23-4 Potential Due to Any Charge Distribution 23-5 Equipotential Surfaces 23-6 Electric Dipole Potential 23-7 E Determined from V 23-8 Electrostatic Potential Energy; the Electron Volt 23-9 Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscope SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 24: CAPACITANCE, DIELECTRICS, ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE 24-1 Capacitors 24-2 Determination of Capacitance 24-3 Capacitors in Series and Parallel 24-4 Electric Energy Storage 24-5 Dielectrics *24-6 Molecular Description of Dielectrics SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 25: ELECTRIC CURRENTS AND RESISTANCE 25-1 The Electric Battery 25-2 Electric Current 25-3 Ohm's Law: Resistance and Resistors 25-4 Resistivity 25-5 Electric Power 25-6 Power in Household Circuits 25-7 Alternating Current 25-8 Microscopic View of Electric Current: Current Density and Drift Velocity *25-9 Superconductivity *25-10 Electrical Conduction in the Nervous System SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 26: DC CIRCUITS26-1 EMF and Terminal Voltage26-2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel26-3 Kirchoff's Rules26-4 EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery26-5 Circuits Containing Resistor and Capacitor (RC Circuits)26-6 Electric Hazards*26-7 Ammeters and VoltmetersSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 27: MAGNETISM27-1 Magnets and Magnetic Fields27-2 Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields27-3 Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of 27-4 Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field27-5 Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Dipole Moment*27-6 Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakers27-7 Discover and Properties of the Electron*27-8 The Hall Effect*27-9 Mass SpectrometerSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 28: SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD28-1 Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire28-2 Force between Two Parallel Wires28-3 Definitions of the Ampere and the Coulomb28-4 Ampere's Law28-5 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid and a Toroid28-6 Biot-Savart Law*28-7 Magnetic materials-Ferromagnetism*28-8 Electromagnets and Solenoids-Applications*28-9 Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Materials; Hysteresis*28-10 Paramagnetism and DiamagnetismSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 29: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND FARADAY'S LAW29-1 Induced EMF29-2 Faraday's Law of Induction; Lenz's Law29-3 EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor29-4 Electric Generators*29-5 Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents29-6 Transformers and Transmission of Power29-7 A Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field*29-8 Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, Seismograph, GFCISUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 30: INDUCTANCE, ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS, AND AC CIRCUITS30-1 Mutual Inductance30-2 Self-Inductance30-3 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field30-4 LR Circuits 30-5 LC Circuits and Electromagnetic Oscillations30-6 LC Oscillations with Resistance (LRC Circuit)30-7 AC Circuits with AC Source30-8 LRC Series AC Circuit30-9 Resonance in AC Circuits*30-10 Impedance MatchingSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 31: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES31-1 Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Ampere's Law and Displacement Current31-2 Gauss's Law for Magnetism31-3 Maxwell's Equations31-4 Production of Electromagnetic Waves*31-5 Electromagnetic Waves, and Their Speed, from Maxwell's Equations31-6 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum31-7 Measuring the Speed of Light31-8 Energy in EM Waves; the Poynting Vector*31-9 Radiation Pressure*31-10 Radio and Television; Wireless CommunicationSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 32: LIGHT: REFLECTION AND REFRACTION32-1 The Ray Model of Light32-2 The Speed of Light and Index of Refraction32-3 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror32-4 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors32-5 Refraction: Snell's Law32-6 Visible Spectrum and Dispersion32-7 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics*32-8 Refraction at a Spherical SurfaceSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 33: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS33-1 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing33-2 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification33-3 Combinations of Lenses33-4 Lensmaker's Equation33-5 Cameras, Film and Digital33-6 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses33-7 Magnifying Glass33-8 Telescopes*33-9 Compound Microscope*33-10 Aberrations of Lenses and MirrorsSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 34: THE WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT; INTERFERENCE34-1 Waves Versus Particles; Huygens' Principle and Diffraction34-2 Huygens' Principle and the Law of Refraction34-3 Interference-Young's Double-Slit Experiment34-4 Intensity in the Double-Slit Interference Pattern34-5 Interference in Thin Films*34-6 Michelson Interferometer*34-7 Luminous IntensitySUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 35: DIFFRACTION AND POLARIZATION35-1 Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk35-2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction Pattern35-3 Diffraction in the Double-Slit Experiment 35-4 Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures35-5 Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the » Limit*35-6 Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification35-7 Diffraction Grating*35-8 The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy*35-9 Peak Widths and Resolving Power for a Diffraction Grating*35-10 X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction35-11 Polarization*35-12 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)*35-13 Scattering of Light by the AtmosphereSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 36: SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY36-1 Galilean-Newtonian Relativity*36-2 The Michelson-Morley Experiment36-3 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity36-4 Simultaneity36-5 Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox36-6 Length Contraction36-7 Four-Dimensional Space-Time36-8 Galilean and Lorentz Transformations36-9 Relativistic Momentum and Mass36-10 The Ultimate Speed36-11 Energy and Mass; E=mc236-12 Doppler Shift for Light36-13 The Impact of Special RelativitySUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 37: EARLY QUANTUM THEORY AND MODELS OF THE ATOM37-1 Planck's Quantum Hypothesis37-2 Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect37-3 Photons and the Compton Effect37-4 Photon Interactions; Pair Production37-5 Wave-Particle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity37-6 Wave Nature of Matter*37-7 Electron Microscopes37-8 Early Models of the Atom37-9 Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom37-10 The Bohr Model37-11 DeBroglie's Hypothesis Applied to AtomsSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 38: QUANTUM MECHANICS38-1 Quantum Mechanics-A New Theory38-2 The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experiment38-3 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle38-4 Philosophic Implications; Probability Versus Determinism38-5 The Schrodinger Equation in One Dimension-Time-Independent Form*38-6 Time-Dependent Schrodinger Equation38-7 Free Particles; Plane Waves and Wave Packets38-8 Particle in an Infinitely Deep Square Well Potential (a Rigid Box)*38-9 Finite Potential Well38-10 Tunneling through a BarrierSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 39: QUANTUM MECHANICS OF ATOMS39-1 Quantum-Mechanical View of Atoms39-2 Hydrogen Atom: Schrodinger Equation and Quantum Numbers39-3 Hydrogen Atom Wave Functions39-4 Complex Atoms; the Exclusion Principle39-5 The Periodic Table of Elements39-6 X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number*39-7 Magnetic Dipole Moments; Total Angular Momentum*39-8 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence*39-9 Lasers*39-10 HolographySUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 40: MOLECULES AND SOLIDS40-1 Bonding in Molecules40-2 Potential-Energy Diagrams for Molecules40-3 Weak (van der Waals) Bonds40-4 Molecular Spectra40-5 Bonding in Solids40-6 Free-Electron Theory of Metals40-7 Band Theory of Solids 40-8 Semiconductors and Doping*40-9 Semiconductor Diodes*40-10 Transistors and Integrated CircuitsSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 41: NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIOACTIVITY41-1 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus41-2 Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces41-3 Radioactivity41-4 Alpha Decay41-5 Beta Decay41-6 Gamma Decay41-7 Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws41-8 Half-Life and Rate of Decay41-9 Decay Series41-10 Radioactive Dating41-11 Detection of RadiationSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 42: NUCLEAR ENERGY: EFECTS AND USES OF RADIATION42-1 Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutations of Elements42-2 Cross Section42-3 Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors42-4 Fusion42-5 Passage of radiation through matter; Radiation Damage42-6 Measurement of Radiation-Dosimetry*42-7 Radiation Therapy*42-8 Tracers*42-9 Imaging by Tomography: CAT Scans, and Emission Tomography*42-10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 43: ELEMENTARY PARTICLES43-1 High-Energy Particles43-2 Particle Accelerators and Detectors43-3 Beginnings of Elementary Particle Physics-Particle Exchange43-4 Particles and Antiparticles43-5 Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws43-6 Particle Classification43-7 Particle Stability and Resonances43-8 Strange Particles43-9 Quarks43-10 The Standard Model : Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electroweak Theory43-11 Grand Unified TheoriesSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS