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ABOUT THIS BOOK
Embedded Linux Primer: A Practical Real-World Approach
£40.99

EMBEDDED LINUX PRIMER: A PRACTICAL REAL-WORLD APPROACH

PAPERBACK BY HALLINAN, CHRISTOPHER

£40.99

ISBN
9780137017836
IMPRINT
PRENTICE HALL
 
 
EDITION
2ND EDITION
PUBLISHER
PEARSON EDUCATION (US)
STOCK FOR DELIVERY
New product available - 9780134497204
FORMAT
PAPERBACK
PAGES
656 pages
PUBLICATION DATE
26 OCT 2010

DESCRIPTION

Up-to-the-Minute, Complete Guidance for Developing Embedded Solutions with Linux Linux has emerged as today's #1 operating system for embedded products. Christopher Hallinan's Embedded Linux Primer has proven itself as the definitive real-world guide to building efficient, high-value, embedded systems with Linux. Now, Hallinan has thoroughly updated this highly praised book for the newest Linux kernels, capabilities, tools, and hardware support, including advanced multicore processors. Drawing on more than a decade of embedded Linux experience, Hallinan helps you rapidly climb the learning curve, whether you're moving from legacy environments or you're new to embedded programming. Hallinan addresses today's most important development challenges and demonstrates how to solve the problems you're most likely to encounter. You'll learn how to build a modern, efficient embedded Linux development environment, and then utilize it as productively as possible. Hallinan offers up-to-date guidance on everything from kernel configuration and initialization to bootloaders, device drivers to file systems, and BusyBox utilities to real-time configuration and system analysis. This edition adds entirely new chapters on UDEV, USB, and open source build systems. Tour the typical embedded system and development environment and understand its concepts and components. Understand the Linux kernel and userspace initialization processes. Preview bootloaders, with specific emphasis on U-Boot. Configure the Memory Technology Devices (MTD) subsystem to interface with flash (and other) memory devices. Make the most of BusyBox and latest open source development tools. Learn from expanded and updated coverage of kernel debugging. Build and analyze real-time systems with Linux. Learn to configure device files and driver loading with UDEV. Walk through detailed coverage of the USB subsystem. Introduces the latest open source embedded Linux build systems. Reference appendices include U-Boot and BusyBox commands.

CONTENTS

Foreword for the First Edition xxv Foreword for the Second Edition xxvi Preface xxvii Acknowledgments for the First Edition xxxiii Acknowledgments for the Second Edition xxxv About the Author xxxvi Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Why Linux 2 1.2 Embedded Linux Today 3 1.3 Open Source and the GPL 3 1.3.1 Free Versus Freedom 4 1.4 Standards and Relevant Bodies 5 1.4.1 Linux Standard Base 5 1.4.2 Linux Foundation 6 1.4.3 Carrier-Grade Linux 6 1.4.4 Mobile Linux Initiative: Moblin 7 1.4.5 Service Availability Forum 7 1.5 Summary 8 1.5.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 8 Chapter 2 The Big Picture 9 2.1 Embedded or Not? 10 2.1.1 BIOS Versus Bootloader 11 2.2 Anatomy of an Embedded System 12 2.2.1 Typical Embedded Linux Setup 13 2.2.2 Starting the Target Board 14 2.2.3 Booting the Kernel 16 2.2.4 Kernel Initialization: Overview 18 2.2.5 First User Space Process: init 19 2.3 Storage Considerations 20 2.3.1 Flash Memory 20 2.3.2 NAND Flash 22 2.3.3 Flash Usage 23 2.3.4 Flash File Systems 24 2.3.5 Memory Space 25 2.3.6 Execution Contexts 26 2.3.7 Process Virtual Memory 28 2.3.8 Cross-Development Environment 30 2.4 Embedded Linux Distributions 32 2.4.1 Commercial Linux Distributions 33 2.4.2 Do-It-Yourself Linux Distributions 33 2.5 Summary 34 2.5.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 35 Chapter 3 Processor Basics 37 3.1 Stand-Alone Processors 38 3.1.1 IBM 970FX 39 3.1.2 Intel Pentium M 39 3.1.3 Intel Atom (TM) 40 3.1.4 Freescale MPC7448 40 3.1.5 Companion Chipsets 41 3.2 Integrated Processors: Systems on Chip 43 3.2.1 Power Architecture 44 3.2.2 Freescale Power Architecture 44 3.2.3 Freescale PowerQUICC I 45 3.2.4 Freescale PowerQUICC II 46 3.2.5 PowerQUICC II Pro 47 3.2.6 Freescale PowerQUICC III 48 3.2.7 Freescale QorIQ (TM) 48 3.2.8 AMCC Power Architecture 50 3.2.9 MIPS 53 3.2.10 Broadcom MIPS 54 3.2.11 Other MIPS 55 3.2.12 ARM 55 3.2.13 TI ARM 56 3.2.14 Freescale ARM 58 3.2.15 Other ARM Processors 59 3.3 Other Architectures 59 3.4 Hardware Platforms 60 3.4.1 CompactPCI 60 3.4.2 ATCA 60 3.5 Summary 61 3.5.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 62 Chapter 4 The Linux Kernel: A Different Perspective 63 4.1 Background 64 4.1.1 Kernel Versions 65 4.1.2 Kernel Source Repositories 67 4.1.3 Using git to Download a Kernel 68 4.2 Linux Kernel Construction 68 4.2.1 Top-Level Source Directory 69 4.2.2 Compiling the Kernel 69 4.2.3 The Kernel Proper: vmlinux 72 4.2.4 Kernel Image Components 73 4.2.5 Subdirectory Layout 77 4.3 Kernel Build System 78 4.3.1 The Dot-Config 78 4.3.2 Configuration Editor(s 80 4.3.3 Makefile Targets 83 4.4 Kernel Configuration 89 4.4.1 Custom Configuration Options 91 4.4.2 Kernel Makefiles 95 4.5 Kernel Documentation 96 4.6 Obtaining a Custom Linux Kernel 96 4.6.1 What Else Do I Need 97 4.7 Summary 97 4.7.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 98 Chapter 5 Kernel Initialization 99 5.1 Composite Kernel Image: Piggy and Friends 100 5.1.1 The Image Object 103 5.1.2 Architecture Objects 104 5.1.3 Bootstrap Loader 105 5.1.4 Boot Messages 106 5.2 Initialization Flow of Control 109 5.2.1 Kernel Entry Point: head.o 111 5.2.2 Kernel Startup: main.c 113 5.2.3 Architecture Setup 114 5.3 Kernel Command-Line Processing 115 5.3.1 The __setup Macro 116 5.4 Subsystem Initialization 122 5.4.1 The *__initcall Macros 122 5.5 The init Thread 125 5.5.1 Initialization Via initcalls 126 5.5.2 initcall_debug 127 5.5.3 Final Boot Steps 127 5.6 Summary 129 5.6.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 130 Chapter 6 User Space Initialization 131 6.1 Root File System 132 6.1.1 FHS: File System Hierarchy Standard 133 6.1.2 File System Layout 133 6.1.3 Minimal File System 134 6.1.4 The Embedded Root FS Challenge 136 6.1.5 Trial-and-Error Method 137 6.1.6 Automated File System Build Tools 137 6.2 Kernel's Last Boot Steps 137 6.2.1 First User Space Program 139 6.2.2 Resolving Dependencies 139 6.2.3 Customized Initial Process 140 6.3 The init Process 140 6.3.1 inittab 143 6.3.2 Sample Web Server Startup Script 145 6.4 Initial RAM Disk 146 6.4.1 Booting with initrd 147 6.4.2 Bootloader Support for initrd 148 6.4.3 initrd Magic: linuxrc 150 6.4.4 The initrd Plumbing 151 6.4.5 Building an initrd Image 152 6.5 Using initramfs 153 6.5.1 Customizing initramfs 154 6.6 Shutdown 156 6.7 Summary 156 6.7.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 157 Chapter 7 Bootloaders 159 7.1 Role of a Bootloader 160 7.2 Bootloader Challenges 161 7.2.1 DRAM Controller 161 7.2.2 Flash Versus RAM 162 7.2.3 Image Complexity 162 7.2.4 Execution Context 165 7.3 A Universal Bootloader: Das U-Boot 166 7.3.1 Obtaining U-Boot 166 7.3.2 Configuring U-Boot 167 7.3.3 U-Boot Monitor Commands 169 7.3.4 Network Operations 170 7.3.5 Storage Subsystems 173 7.3.6 Booting from Disk 174 7.4 Porting U-Boot 174 7.4.1 EP405 U-Boot Port 175 7.4.2 U-Boot Makefile Configuration Target 176 7.4.3 EP405 First Build 177 7.4.4 EP405 Processor Initialization 178 7.4.5 Board-Specific Initialization 181 7.4.6 Porting Summary 184 7.4.7 U-Boot Image Format 185 7.5 Device Tree Blob (Flat Device Tree 187 7.5.1 Device Tree Source 189 7.5.2 Device Tree Compiler 192 7.5.3 Alternative Kernel Images Using DTB 193 7.6 Other Bootloaders 194 7.6.1 Lilo 194 7.6.2 GRUB 195 7.6.3 Still More Bootloaders 197 7.7 Summary 197 7.7.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 198 Chapter 8 Device Driver Basics 201 8.1 Device Driver Concepts 202 8.1.1 Loadable Modules 203 8.1.2 Device Driver Architecture 204 8.1.3 Minimal Device Driver Example 204 8.1.4 Module Build Infrastructure 205 8.1.5 Installing a Device Driver 209 8.1.6 Loading a Module 210 8.1.7 Module Parameters 211 8.2 Module Utilities 212 8.2.1 insmod 212 8.2.2 lsmod 213 8.2.3 modprobe 213 8.2.4 depmod 214 8.2.5 rmmod 215 8.2.6 modinfo 216 8.3 Driver Methods 217 8.3.1 Driver File System Operations 217 8.3.2 Allocation of Device Numbers 220 8.3.3 Device Nodes and mknod 220 8.4 Bringing It All Together 222 8.5 Building Out-of-Tree Drivers 223 8.6 Device Drivers and the GPL 224 8.7 Summary 225 8.7.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 226 Chapter 9 File Systems 227 9.1 Linux File System Concepts 228 9.1.1 Partitions 229 9.2 ext2 230 9.2.1 Mounting a File System 232 9.2.2 Checking File System Integrity 233 9.3 ext3 235 9.4 ext4 237 9.5 ReiserFS 238 9.6 JFFS2 239 9.6.1 Building a JFFS2 Image 240 9.7 cramfs 242 9.8 Network File System 244 9.8.1 Root File System on NFS 246 9.9 Pseudo File Systems 248 9.9.1 /proc File System 249 9.9.2 sysfs 252 9.10 Other File Systems 255 9.11 Building a Simple File System 256 9.12 Summary 258 9.12.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 259 Chapter 10 MTD Subsystem 261 10.1 MTD Overview 262 10.1.1 Enabling MTD Services 263 10.1.2 MTD Basics 265 10.1.3 Configuring MTD on Your Target 267 10.2 MTD Partitions 267 10.2.1 Redboot Partition Table Partitioning 269 10.2.2 Kernel Command-Line Partitioning 273 10.2.3 Mapping Driver 274 10.2.4 Flash Chip Drivers 276 10.2.5 Board-Specific Initialization 276 10.3 MTD Utilities 279 10.3.1 JFFS2 Root File System 281 10.4 UBI File System 284 10.4.1 Configuring for UBIFS 284 10.4.2 Building a UBIFS Image 284 10.4.3 Using UBIFS as the Root File System 287 10.5 Summary 287 10.5.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 288 Chapter 11 BusyBox 289 11.1 Introduction to BusyBox 290 11.1.1 BusyBox Is Easy 291 11.2 BusyBox Configuration 291 11.2.1 Cross-Compiling BusyBox 293 11.3 BusyBox Operation 293 11.3.1 BusyBox init 297 11.3.2 Sample rcS Initialization Script 299 11.3.3 BusyBox Target Installation 300 11.3.4 BusyBox Applets 302 11.4 Summary 303 11.4.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 304 Chapter 12 Embedded Development Environment 305 12.1 Cross-Development Environment 306 12.1.1 Hello World Embedded 307 12.2 Host System Requirements 311 12.2.1 Hardware Debug Probe 311 12.3 Hosting Target Boards 312 12.3.1 TFTP Server 312 12.3.2 BOOTP/DHCP Server 313 12.3.3 NFS Server 316 12.3.4 Target NFS Root Mount 318 12.3.5 U-Boot NFS Root Mount Example 320 12.4 Summary 322 12.4.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 323 Chapter 13 Development Tools 325 13.1 GNU Debugger (GDB) 326 13.1.1 Debugging a Core Dump 327 13.1.2 Invoking GDB 329 13.1.3 Debug Session in GDB 331 13.2 Data Display Debugger 333 13.3 cbrowser/cscope 335 13.4 Tracing and Profiling Tools 337 13.4.1 strace 337 13.4.2 strace Variations 341 13.4.3 ltrace 343 13.4.4 ps 344 13.4.5 top 346 13.4.6 mtrace 348 13.4.7 dmalloc 350 13.4.8 Kernel Oops 353 13.5 Binary Utilities 355 13.5.1 readelf 355 13.5.2 Examining Debug Information Using readelf 357 13.5.3 objdump 359 13.5.4 objcopy 360 13.6 Miscellaneous Binary Utilities 361 13.6.1 strip 361 13.6.2 addr2line 361 13.6.3 strings 362 13.6.4 ldd 362 13.6.5 nm 363 13.6.6 prelink 364 13.7 Summary 364 13.7.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 365 Chapter 14 Kernel Debugging Techniques 367 14.1 Challenges to Kernel Debugging 368 14.2 Using KGDB for Kernel Debugging 369 14.2.1 KGDB Kernel Configuration 371 14.2.2 Target Boot with KGDB Support 372 14.2.3 Useful Kernel Breakpoints 376 14.2.4 Sharing a Console Serial Port with KGDB 377 14.2.5 Debugging Very Early Kernel Code 379 14.2.6 KGDB Support in the Mainline Kernel 380 14.3 Kernel Debugging Techniques 381 14.3.1 gdb Remote Serial Protocol 382 14.3.2 Debugging Optimized Kernel Code 385 14.3.3 GDB User-Defined Commands 392 14.3.4 Useful Kernel GDB Macros 393 14.3.5 Debugging Loadable Modules 402 14.3.6 printk Debugging 407 14.3.7 Magic SysReq Key 409 14.4 Hardware-Assisted Debugging 410 14.4.1 Programming Flash Using a JTAG Probe 411 14.4.2 Debugging with a JTAG Probe 413 14.5 When It Doesn't Boot 417 14.5.1 Early Serial Debug Output 417 14.5.2 Dumping the printk Log Buffer 417 14.5.3 KGDB on Panic 420 14.6 Summary 421 14.6.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 422 Chapter 15 Debugging Embedded Linux Applications 423 15.1 Target Debugging 424 15.2 Remote (Cross) Debugging 424 15.2.1 gdbserver 427 15.3 Debugging with Shared Libraries 429 15.3.1 Shared Library Events in GDB 431 15.4 Debugging Multiple Tasks 435 15.4.1 Debugging Multiple Processes 435 15.4.2 Debugging Multithreaded Applications 438 15.4.3 Debugging Bootloader/Flash Code 441 15.5 Additional Remote Debug Options 442 15.5.1 Debugging Using a Serial Port 442 15.5.2 Attaching to a Running Process 442 15.6 Summary 443 15.6.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 444 Chapter 16 Open Source Build Systems 445 16.1 Why Use a Build System? 446 16.2 Scratchbox 447 16.2.1 Installing Scratchbox 447 16.2.2 Creating a Cross-Compilation Target 448 16.3 Buildroot 451 16.3.1 Buildroot Installation 451 16.3.2 Buildroot Configuration 451 16.3.3 Buildroot Build 452 16.4 OpenEmbedded 454 16.4.1 OpenEmbedded Composition 455 16.4.2 BitBake Metadata 456 16.4.3 Recipe Basics 456 16.4.4 Metadata Tasks 460 16.4.5 Metadata Classes 461 16.4.6 Configuring OpenEmbedded 462 16.4.7 Building Images 463 16.5 Summary 464 16.5.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 464 Chapter 17 Linux and Real Time 465 17.1 What Is Real Time 466 17.1.1 Soft Real Time 466 17.1.2 Hard Real Time 467 17.1.3 Linux Scheduling 467 17.1.4 Latency 467 17.2 Kernel Preemption 469 17.2.1 Impediments to Preemption 469 17.2.2 Preemption Models 471 17.2.3 SMP Kernel 472 17.2.4 Sources of Preemption Latency 473 17.3 Real-Time Kernel Patch 473 17.3.1 Real-Time Features 475 17.3.2 O(1) Scheduler 476 17.3.3 Creating a Real-Time Process 477 17.4 Real-Time Kernel Performance Analysis 478 17.4.1 Using Ftrace for Tracing 478 17.4.2 Preemption Off Latency Measurement 479 17.4.3 Wakeup Latency Measurement 481 17.4.4 Interrupt Off Timing 483 17.4.5 Soft Lockup Detection 484 17.5 Summary 485 17.5.1 Suggestion for Additional Reading 485 Chapter 18 Universal Serial Bus 487 18.1 USB Overview 488 18.1.1 USB Physical Topology 488 18.1.2 USB Logical Topology 490 18.1.3 USB Revisions 491 18.1.4 USB Connectors 492 18.1.5 USB Cable Assemblies 494 18.1.6 USB Modes 494 18.2 Configuring USB 495 18.2.1 USB Initialization 497 18.3 sysfs and USB Device Naming 500 18.4 Useful USB Tools 502 18.4.1 USB File System 502 18.4.2 Using usbview 504 18.4.3 USB Utils (lsusb 507 18.5 Common USB Subsystems 508 18.5.1 USB Mass Storage Class 508 18.5.2 USB HID Class 511 18.5.3 USB CDC Class Drivers 512 18.5.4 USB Network Support 515 18.6 USB Debug 516 18.6.1 usbmon 517 18.6.2 Useful USB Miscellanea 518 18.7 Summary 519 18.7.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 519 Chapter 19 udev 521 19.1 What Is udev? 522 19.2 Device Discovery 523 19.3 Default udev Behavior 525 19.4 Understanding udev Rules 527 19.4.1 Modalias 530 19.4.2 Typical udev Rules Configuration 533 19.4.3 Initial System Setup for udev 535 19.5 Loading Platform Device Drivers 538 19.6 Customizing udev Behavior 540 19.6.1 udev Customization Example: USB Automounting 540 19.7 Persistent Device Naming 541 19.7.1 udev Helper Utilities 542 19.8 Using udev with busybox 545 19.8.1 busybox mdev 545 19.8.2 Configuring mdev 547 19.9 Summary 548 19.9.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 548 Appendix A GNU Public License 549 Preamble 550 Terms and Conditions for Copying, Distribution, and Modification 551 No Warranty 555 Appendix B U-Boot Configurable Commands 557 Appendix C BusyBox Commands 561 Appendix D SDRAM Interface Considerations 571 D.1 SDRAM Basics 572 D.1.1 SDRAM Refresh 573 D.2 Clocking 574 D.3 SDRAM Setup 575 D.4 Summary 580 D.4.1 Suggestions for Additional Reading 580 Appendix E Open Source Resources 581 Source Repositories and Developer Information 582 Mailing Lists 582 Linux News and Developments 583 Open Source Legal Insight and Discussion 583 Appendix F Sample BDI-2000 Configuration File 585 Index 593