Marketing Communications
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864 pages
21 FEB 2014


In addition to an extensive theoretical foundation, the sixth edition of Marketing Communications provides readers with a strongly applied perspective of this rapidly changing and fascinating discipline. Using case studies and examples of brands from around the world, plus invaluable support from the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising, this book provides a unique blend of the theory and practice of brand communications. Chris Fill's book continues to be the definitive text for undergraduate and postgraduate students in marketing, business studies and other marketing-related programmes. It is also recognised as an invaluable complement for professional students, including those studying with the Chartered Institute of Marketing.


Guided tour Guided tour of the web site Foreword Preface Acknowledgements Part 1 An introduction to marketing communications 1 Introducing marketing communications Aims and learning objectives Mini case: LV= a spectacular revival Introduction The concept of marketing as an exchange Marketing communications and the process of exchange The scope of marketing communications The role of marketing communications The tasks of marketing communications Defining marketing communications Environmental influences Internal influences Market influences External influences The marketing communication mix Advertising Sales promotion Personal selling Public relations Direct marketing The key characteristics of the communication tools Media and the MCs mix Key differences between conventional and digital media Messages and the MCs mix Criteria when selecting the tools for the mix Control Financial resources Dispersion - size and geography Communication tasks Communication differences Message reception Number of decision-makers The balance of the communication mix The constituent tools of the marketing communication mix Message content Message origin Length of purchase decision time Negative communication Target marketing and research Budget allocation Measurement and evaluation Key points Review questions References 2 Communication: forms and conversations Aims and learning objectives Mini case: 'Up your Viva' An introduction to the process of communication A linear model of communication Source/encoding Signal Decoding/receiver Feedback/response Noise Realms of understanding Factors that influence the communication process The influence of the media The influence of people The influencer model of communication Interactional model of communication Word-of-mouth communication Definition and motives Opinion leaders Opinion formers Opinion followers Developing brands with word-of-mouth communications Relational approaches to communications Network approaches to communications Process of adoption Process of diffusion Key points Review questions References 3 Audiences: how they process information and behave Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Recruiting teachers - nudging the journey Introduction Information processing Perception Marketing and perception Cognitive learning Cognitive response Attitudes Decision-making Consumer purchase decision-making process Organisational purchase decision making process Perceived risk Involvement theory Two approaches to decision-making Impact on communications Alternative approaches Hedonic consumption Tribal consumption Behavioural economics Key points Review questions References 4 How marketing communications might work Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Rolex: a range of quality communications Introduction The strategic context Engagement and the role of marketing communications How does marketing communications work? Interpretation 1 - Sequential models Interpretation 2 - Changing attitudes with marketing communications Using marketing communication to influence attitudes Interpretation 3 - Shaping relationships Influencing value exchanges Interpretation 4 - Developing significant value Interpretation 5 - Cognitive processing Conclusion Key points Review questions References Part 2 Managing marketing communications 5 Marketing communications: strategies and planning Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Cravendale - milk matters Introduction Understanding strategy Marketing communications strategy Strategy approach 1 - Positioning Strategy approach 2 - Audience Strategy approach 3 - Platform Strategy approach 4 - Configuration Planning marketing communications The marketing communications planning framework Elements of the plan Context analysis Communication objectives Marketing communication strategy Coordinated communication mix Resources Scheduling and implementation Evaluation and control Feedback Links and essential points Key points Review questions References 6 Marketing communications: objectives and positioning Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Juan Valdez - the face of Colombian Coffee Introduction The role of objectives in corporate strategy The role of brand communication objectives and plans The sales school The communication school Derivation of promotional objectives Setting realistic marketing communication objectives The practitioners' view Business objectives Behavioural objectives Intermediate objectives SMART objectives Positioning The development of the positioning concept The positioning concept Managing positions Perceptual mapping Positioning strategies Product features Price/quality Product class dissociation User Competitor Benefit Heritage or cultural symbol Repositioning Key points Review questions References 7 The communication industry: structure, operations and issues Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Diageo - reaching underage drinkers Introduction Dimensions of the UK marketing communications industry Structure and development of the UK marketing communications industry Agency types and structures Industry structure A short history of one-stop shopping Selecting an agency Agency operations Relationships Client/agency relationships Agency remuneration Agency structures and IMC Key points Review questions References 8 Financial resources for marketing communications Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Honda Introduction Trends in communication expenditure The role of the communication budget Benefits of budgeting Difficulties associated with budgeting for communications Techniques and approaches Marginal analysis: the advertising response function Practical approaches Quantitative approaches Competitive parity Advertising-to-sales ratio Share of voice Strategic implications of the SOV concept Appropriation brand types The value of brand communications Which methods are most used? Budgeting for the other elements of the communication mix Key points Review questions References 9 Evaluation and metrics Aims and learning objectives Mini case: 'Still killing Jill?' Introduction The role of evaluation in planned communications Advertising Pre-testing Pre-testing unfinished advertisements Focus groups Consumer juries Pre-testing finished advertisements Dummy vehicles Readability tests Projective techniques Theatre tests Physiological measures Post-testing Inquiry tests Recall tests Recognition tests Sales tests Simulated market tests Other tests Tracking studies Financial analysis Public relations Corporate image Recruitment Crisis management Other PR measuring techniques Measuring the fulfilment of brand promises Online communications Social media Key points Review questions References 10 Integrated marketing communications Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Authentic Caribbean rum Introduction The development of IMC Reasons for the developing interest in IMC What is to be integrated? Communication tools Messages Marketing mix Branding Strategy Employees Technology Agencies Definitions of IMC Interpretations of IMC Interpretation 1 - Harmonisation-based IMC Interpretation 2 - Planning-based IMC Interpretation 3 - Perspective-based IMC Interpretation 4 - Portfolio-based IMC Interpretation 5 - Relational-based IMC IMC and transactional marketing IMC and relationship marketing Structuring for IMC Key points Review questions References Part 3 Branding 11 Brand communications Aims and learning objectives Mini case: The Domino Effect - honesty's the best policy Introduction Brand characteristics Benefits of branding Brand portfolios: architecture and forms Brand architecture Brand forms The strategic role of branding Integration Differentiation Added value The role of marketing communications in branding Associations and personalities Brand building Above-the-line Through-the-line Below-the-line Around-the-line Business-to-business branding Online branding Virtual brand communities Brand equity Key points Review questions References 12 Corporate branding and communication Aims and learning objectives Mini case: The BBC's 'Sachsgate' Introduction Corporate identity or corporate branding? The building blocks of corporate reputation Corporate personality Corporate identity Corporate image Dimensions of corporate image Corporate reputation Mind the gaps Corporate communication Corporate communication mix Symbolic communication Management communications Marketing communications Organisational communications Behavioural communications A framework for managing corporate brands Key points Review questions References 13 Employee branding Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Torbay Council Introduction Member/non-member boundaries Internal communication Organisational identity Organisational culture Levels of organisational culture Culture and communication Brand engagement Intellectual and emotional aspects Advertising and the impact on employees Strategic credibility Strategic capability Past performance Corporate communications The credibility of the CEO Internal communications: auditing and planning Procedures associated with a communications audit Functional capability Financial capability Manufacturing capability Marketing capability Key points Review questions References Part 4 The marketing communication mix 14 Advertising: role, forms and strategy Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Apple - 'Think different' Introduction The role of advertising Defining advertising Selling propositions The use of emotion in advertising Types of advertising Advertising models and concepts The elaboration likelihood model Eclectic models of advertising The strong and the weak theories of advertising Using advertising strategically The FCB matrix The Rossiter-Percy grid Consumer-generated advertising Key points Review questions References 15 Public relations Aims and learning objectives Mini case: BP - crisis response Introduction Characteristics of public relations Media catching Which publics? A framework of public relations The press agency/publicity model The public information model The two-way asymmetric model The two-way symmetric model Public relations and relationship management Objectives and public relations Cause-related marketing Public relations: methods and techniques Media relations Press releases Press conferences Interviews Publicity and events Lobbying Corporate advertising Reasons for the use of corporate advertising Investor relations Defensive or crisis communications Crisis phases Framing for crisis communication Integrating public relations in the communications mix Key points Review questions References 16 Sponsorship Aims and learning objectives Mini case: The London Olympics Introduction The growth and development of sponsorship Sponsorship objectives How sponsorship might work Theoretical aspects of sponsorship Types of sponsorship Sports sponsorship Programme sponsorship Arts sponsorship Other forms of sponsorship The role of sponsorship in the communication mix Key points Review questions References 17 Direct marketing and personal selling Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Office for National Statistics - The 2011 Census Introduction Direct marketing The role of direct marketing Types of direct brand Type 1: complemetary tool Type 2: primary differentiator Type 3: sales channel Type 4: brand vehicle The growth of direct marketing Growth driver 1: technology Growth driver 2: changing market context Growth driver 3: changing organisational expectations The role of the database Permission marketing Direct response media Direct mail Telemarketing Carelines Inserts Print Door-to-door Radio and television Personal selling The tasks of personal selling The role of personal selling Strengths and weaknesses of personal selling Strengths Weaknesses When personal selling should be a major part of the communications mix Complexity Buyer significance Communication effectiveness Channel network factors Integration and supporting the sales force Strategic account management Key account management Key account managers Key account relationship cycles Some financial aspects of KAM Global account management Key points Review questions References 18 Sales promotion, field marketing and brand experiences Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Orange at the Glastonbury Festival Introduction Sales promotions Understanding the value of sales promotions The role of sales promotion Short termism Managerial accountability Brand performance Brand expansion Competition for shelf space Sales promotion plans: the objectives An overview of how sales promotions work Retention programmes Sales promotions: methods and techniques Other sales promotion devices Field marketing Range of FM activities Brand experience and events Key points Review questions References 19 Brand placement, exhibitions, packaging and licensing Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Beyonce Introduction Brand placement Characteristics of brand placement Strengths Weaknesses Placement issues Trade shows and exhibitions Reasons to use exhibitions Characteristics of exhibitions and trade fairs Strengths Weaknesses Exhibitions as a form of marketing communications Digital media and trade shows Marketing management of exhibitions Hospitality and events Corporate events Community events Packaging The communication dimensions of packaging Licensing Key points Review questions References 20 Traditional media Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Smoke-free South West - 'Wise-up to roll-ups' Introduction Media classification by form Media classification by source Evaluative criteria Costs Communication richness Interactive properties Audience profile Print media Newspapers Magazines Broadcast media Television Radio Outdoor media Billboards and street furniture Transit In-store media Point-of-purchase (POP) Retail media centres Cinema Ambient media Guerilla tactics Direct response media Key points Review questions References 21 Digital media Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Hiscox Introduction Key forms of digital media The Internet Database technologies Multimedia Mobile technologies Business applications Interactive television Video conferencing Kiosks What digital media enable users to do Interactivity Multichannel marketing Personalisation Mobility Speed Efficiency Enhanced relationships Websites Strengths Weaknesses Website design Websites - visitor behaviour Key differences between traditional and digital media Convergence in marketing communications Key points Review questions References 22 Social, search and interactivity Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Inspired by Iceland Introduction Social media Social networks Viral marketing Web logs Microblogging Podcasting RSS Interactive online communities Search engine marketing Search engine optimisation Pay-per-click searches Email marketing Short message services (SMS) Apps Widgets Affiliate marketing Augmented reality Key points Review questions References 23 Multichannel campaigns: media and tools Aims and learning objectives Mini case: The Salvation Army Introduction Interactivity Multichannel marketing Categorising customers Online advertising Banner ads Microsites Rich media ads Online video Online gaming Online sales promotions Online public relations Online personal selling Online direct marketing Multi-channel campaigns Key points Review questions References 24 Media planning: delivering the message Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Which? Introduction Media planning and the media mix Media switching behaviour Influential factors for media selection Switching behaviour Vehicle selection Media planning concepts Reach and coverage Frequency Gross rating point Effective frequency Recency planning Media usage and attitudes Efficiency Planning, placing and measuring ads online Media source effects Vehicle atmosphere Technical and reproduction characteristics of a vehicle Audience/product characteristics Scheduling Key points Review questions References 25 Creativity Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Johnnie Walker - 'Keep Walking' Introduction What is creativity? Creativity and attention The importance of context Creativity as a signal The creative process The creative code Message framing Storytelling User-generated content (UGC) Sourcing content Key points Review questions References 26 Messages and appeals Aims and learning objectives Mini case: Lynx-Jet - fantasy appeals Introduction Message source Establishing credibility Credibility established by the initiator Credibility established by a spokesperson Sleeper effects Structural elements in a message Message balance Conclusion drawing One- and two-sided messages Order of presentation Message appeal Information-based appeals Emotions- and feelings-based appeals Copycat messaging Advertising tactics Informational motives Transformational motives Key points Review questions References Author index Subject index