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e-Business: Organizational and Technical Foundations
£47.99

E-BUSINESS: ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNICAL FOUNDATIONS

PAPERBACK BY PAPAZOGLOU, MICHAEL P.; RIBBERS, PIETER

£47.99

ISBN
9780470843765
IMPRINT
JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
 
 
EDITION
PUBLISHER
JOHN WILEY AND SONS LTD
STOCK FOR DELIVERY
NOT IN STOCK - AVAILABLE TO ORDER
FORMAT
PAPERBACK
PAGES
750 pages
PUBLICATION DATE
13 JAN 2006

DESCRIPTION

Two significant factors combine to drive the phenomenon of e-Business. Competition constantly motivates companies in their marketplaces, while rapidly developing information technologies offer new opportunities and challenges. For Mike Papazoglou and Piet Ribbers, both business and technology are integral to e-Business. They demonstrate here how a solid understanding of business, organization, management and technology is crucial to an understanding of what e-Business is today and how it is going to be shaped in the future. e-Business: Organisational and Technical Foundations focuses on the development of e-Business between and within enterprises. In particular it addresses how enterprises collaborate, what coordination mechanism are necessary and how this is reflected at the technical infrastructure level. It includes: Abundant real-world examples to encourage readers to understand and appreciate real-life e-BusinessAn analytical and critical approach to understanding business issues, decision-making and technology use and developmentExtensive end of chapter discussion questions and assignments for studentsA companion website at www.wiley.com/go/ebusiness with additional exercises for students and PowerPoint slides and solutions for lecturers

CONTENTS

About the Authors xv Foreword xvii Preface xix 1. The World of e-Business 1 1.1 What is e-Business? 2 1.1.1 e-Business vs. e-Commerce 2 1.1.2 Some critical factors 3 1.2 Characteristics of e-Business 4 1.3 Elements of an e-Business solution 5 1.4 e-Business roles and their challenges 8 1.5 e-Business requirements 10 1.6 Impacts of e-Business 12 1.7 Inhibitors of e-Business 14 1.7.1 Management/strategy issues 14 1.7.2 Cost/financing issues 15 1.7.3 Security and trust issues 15 1.7.4 Legal issues 16 1.7.5 Technological concerns 17 1.7.6 Arguments against investment 17 1.8 Chapter summary 17 2. e-Business Strategy 21 2.1 What is e-Business strategy? 23 2.2 Strategic positioning 26 2.3 Levels of e-Business strategy 26 2.4 The changing competitive agenda: business and technology drivers 28 2.5 The strategic planning process 32 2.6 Strategic alignment 35 2.7 The consequences of e-Business: theoretical foundations 37 2.7.1 Theory of competitive strategy 38 2.7.2 The resource-based view 41 2.7.3 Transaction cost economics 42 2.8 Success factors for implementation of e-Business strategies 44 2.8.1 e-Business transformation as an ill-structured problem 44 2.8.2 The need for program management 46 2.8.3 Design characteristics of program management 46 2.8.4 Change agentry 48 2.9 Chapter summary 49 3. Business Models 53 3.1 Pressures forcing business changes 55 3.2 Business models definitions 57 3.3 Classifications of business models 60 3.3.1 Internet-enabled business models 61 3.3.2 Value Web business models 62 3.3.3 The e-Business-enabled business models 63 3.3.4 Market participants business model 66 3.3.5 Cybermediaries business model 69 3.4 Towards networked business models 70 3.5 Chapter summary 72 4. e-Business Relationships 75 4.1 Modeling interdependent business activities: the value chain 77 4.1.1 The business unit value chain 77 4.1.2 Value chain analysis 80 4.1.3 Value stream analysis 82 4.1.4 Unbundling the business unit value chain 83 4.1.5 The industry value chain 83 4.2 Business processes and their management 85 4.2.1 Business process management 87 4.2.2 Characteristics of business processes 88 4.2.3 Types of business processes 90 4.2.4 Role of IT in business processes 92 4.3 Types and characteristics of e-Business relationships 94 4.3.1 Types of e-Business relationships 95 4.3.2 Types of business relationships and information exchange 97 4.3.3 Characteristics of e-Business relationships 98 4.4 Electronic links and the value chain 100 4.5 Chapter summary 102 5. Governance Structures 107 5.1 Markets versus hierarchies: theoretical contributions 108 5.1.1 The transaction cost perspective 109 5.1.2 Transaction aspects: asset specificity, product complexity and frequency 110 5.1.3 Behavioural assumptions: bounded rationality and opportunism 111 5.1.4 The resource-based perspective 112 5.2 Networks 113 5.3 A supply chain perspective: value-adding partnerships 115 5.4 The effects of information technology on governance 116 5.4.1 The electronic market hypothesis 116 5.4.2 The move-to-the-middle hypothesis 118 5.4.3 A supply chain perspective 120 5.5 Chapter summary 121 6. e-Business Technological Infrastructure 125 6.1 Technical e-Business challenges 127 6.2 Basic infrastructure: client/server technology 129 6.3 Web technologies and applications 133 6.3.1 Web-based applications 135 6.3.2 Architectural features of Web-based applications 138 6.4 Collaborative technologies 143 6.4.1 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) 143 6.4.2 Workflow systems 150 6.5 The role of Enterprise Information Systems in e-Business 162 6.6 Chapter summary 163 7. XML the Enabling Technology for e-Business 165 7.1 Brief overview of XML 166 7.2 Characteristics of XML documents 167 7.2.1 XML declaration 169 7.2.2 Element 170 7.2.3 XML namespaces 170 7.2.4 Well formed and valid documents 172 7.3 Defining structure in XML documents 173 7.3.1 Document Type Definition (DTD) 173 7.3.2 Overview of XML schema 176 7.4 Document presentation and transformation 186 7.4.1 Using XSL to display documents 188 7.4.2 Using XSLT to transform documents 188 7.5 Processing XML documents 190 7.6 XML, EDI and e-Business 192 7.7 Chapter summary 194 8. e-Markets 197 8.1 Electronic markets defined 199 8.1.1 How electronic markets work 201 8.1.2 Functional characteristics of business-to-business e-Markets 203 8.1.3 Classification of electronic markets 204 8.1.4 Market-making mechanisms 207 8.1.5 Biased or unbiased markets 207 8.2 The functions of electronic markets 208 8.3 How do electronic markets differ from traditional markets? 209 8.3.1 Personalization and customization 209 8.3.2 Information goods 210 8.3.3 Search 211 8.3.4 Transaction mechanisms 211 8.3.5 Price discovery 212 8.3.6 Facilitation 212 8.3.7 Electronic invoicing and payment 212 8.4 What are the effects of electronic markets? 214 8.4.1 The impact of the emergence of electronic markets 214 8.4.2 Stakeholders: buyers, suppliers, investors and service suppliers 215 8.5 Electronic market success factors 216 8.5.1 Context-related success factors 217 8.5.2 Process-related success factors 219 8.6 e-Market technology solutions 221 8.7 Chapter summary 223 9. e-Procurement 227 9.1 Introduction 228 9.2 The purchasing process 230 9.2.1 Modeling the purchasing process 231 9.2.2 Purchasing as part of supply chain management 233 9.3 Developments in purchasing 234 9.4 IT and purchasing 235 9.5 e-Procurement 235 9.5.1 e-Procurement models 239 9.5.2 The components of e-Procurement systems 241 9.5.3 Internet-based e-Catalog systems 242 9.5.4 Catalog aggregation 245 9.6 Auctions 245 9.7 e-Procurement solutions 246 9.8 Chapter summary 247 10. e-Business Networks 252 10.1 Introduction 252 10.2 Network organizations 254 10.2.1 Classifying networks 255 10.3 Interorganizational information systems and network organizations 259 10.3.1 System integration and business benefits 259 10.3.2 Interoperability: a matter of standards 262 10.3.3 Classifying interorganizational information systems 263 10.3.4 Limits to the reach of network organizations 266 10.4 Supply chains 267 10.4.1 Logistics flow and network perspectives 269 10.4.2 Supply chain management 271 10.4.3 Technology solutions for supply chains 272 10.5 Integrated supply chains 275 10.5.1 Essential requirements of integrated value chains 276 10.6 Concluding remarks 278 10.7 Chapter summary 279 10.7.1 Network organization and their IOSs 279 10.7.2 Supply chains 281 11. Intermediaries in the Value Systems 285 11.1 Introduction 288 11.2 Definition and classification of intermediaries 288 11.2.1 Transactional intermediaries or infomediaries 289 11.2.2 Added value and functions 290 11.2.3 Services 292 11.3 Dynamics in the value system 293 11.3.1 Disintermediation 293 11.3.2 Are intermediaries threatened? 294 11.3.3 The intermediation disintermediation re-intermediation cycle 299 11.4 Chapter summary 301 12. e-Business Modeling 305 12.1 Business modeling 307 12.2 Business processes and collaborations 309 12.3 Business modeling with UML 310 12.3.1 Class diagrams 311 12.3.2 Activity diagrams 313 12.3.3 Use case diagrams 313 12.3.4 Sequence diagrams 316 12.3.5 Deployment diagram 316 12.3.6 Business process modeling with UML 2.0 316 12.4 Business process modeling methodologies 320 12.4.1 The Unifi ed Software Development Process 322 12.4.2 The Rational Unified Process (RUP) 323 12.4.3 The UN/CEFACT Modeling Methodology 325 12.5 The Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model 331 12.6 Business Process Modeling Notation 335 12.7 Comparing BPMN with UML 339 12.8 The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) 340 12.9 Chapter summary 344 13. Security and Reliability for e-Business 349 13.1 Reliability and quality considerations 351 13.2 Quality requirements 353 13.3 Trust 357 13.4 e-Business risks 359 13.5 e-Business security 361 13.5.1 Application security requirements 362 13.5.2 Security mechanisms for e-Business 364 13.6 Realizing a secure e-Business infrastructure 367 13.6.1 Infrastructure availability 367 13.6.2 Network level security 368 13.6.3 Secure communications 372 13.6.4 Digital certification and trusted third parties 376 13.6.5 Trust services overview 378 13.7 Chapter summary 387 14. Approaches to Middleware 391 14.1 What is middleware? 392 14.2 Messaging 393 14.3 Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) 396 14.4 Remote Method Invocation (RMI) 398 14.5 Message-Oriented Middleware (MOM) 400 14.5.1 Integration brokers 402 14.5.2 The Java Message Service 405 14.6 Data-access middleware 406 14.7 Transaction-oriented middleware 407 14.7.1 Transaction-processing (TP) monitors 408 14.7.2 Application servers 409 14.8 Distributed-object middleware 411 14.8.1 Object Request Brokers (ORBs) 412 14.8.2 The Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) component model 416 14.9 Newer generation frameworks 418 14.9.1 .NET 418 14.9.2 J2EE 420 14.10 Chapter summary 428 15. Component-based Development 431 15.1 What are components? 433 15.1.1 Component characteristics 436 15.2 Interfaces and contracts 438 15.3 Business components and entities 441 15.3.1 Business entities 442 15.3.2 Business components 442 15.4 Component models and compositions 444 15.4.1 Component models 444 15.4.2 Component compositions 445 15.5 Component frameworks and patterns 447 15.5.1 Characteristics and types of frameworks 447 15.5.2 Business patterns 449 15.6 Business component architecture 450 15.7 Business component-based design and development 452 15.7.1 Designing components 452 15.7.2 Developing components 459 15.7.3 Certifying components 460 15.8 Advantages and limitations of component-based development 460 15.9 Chapter summary 462 16. Leveraging Legacy Applications 465 16.1 Enterprise information systems and legacy enterprise assets 467 16.2 Strategies for modernizing legacy systems 469 16.3 Non-invasive approaches 471 16.3.1 Refacing 471 16.3.2 Repurposing 471 16.3.3 Presentation tier modernization techniques 472 16.4 Invasive approaches 474 16.4.1 Maintenance 474 16.4.2 Replacement 474 16.4.3 Re-engineering and transformation 475 16.5 Legacy modernization techniques 483 16.5.1 Legacy componentization 483 16.5.2 Requirements for componentization 486 16.6 Chapter summary 492 17. Enterprise Application Integration 495 17.1 The application integration imperative 497 17.1.1 Target applications 499 17.2 Operational and financial drivers 501 17.3 What is Enterprise Application Integration? 502 17.4 Typical topologies for enterprise application integration 504 17.4.1 Point-to-point topology 505 17.4.2 Publish/Subscribe (shared bus) topology 507 17.4.3 Hub and spoke topology 509 17.4.4 Conclusion 510 17.5 Types of application integration: passive vs. active 511 17.6 Layers of EAI integration 512 17.6.1 Transportation layer 512 17.6.2 Data integration layer 513 17.6.3 Application programming interface integration layer 517 17.6.4 Business process integration layer 518 17.7 Workflow, EAI, and BPM technologies: A comparison 524 17.8 When to use synchronous or asynchronous communication 525 17.9 Elements of the application integration architecture 527 17.10 Implementing business process-level EAI 529 17.10.1 Integration broker-based process-level integration 530 17.10.2 Application server-based process-level integration 534 17.11 Summary of application integration infrastructure functions 537 17.12 Chapter summary 538 18. e-Business Integration 543 18.1 Business processes and e-Business integration 545 18.2 Business process redesign 547 18.3 e-Processes 548 18.4 Overview of e-Business integration 549 18.4.1 Choosing the type of integration 551 18.4.2 The role of standards 553 18.4.3 Initial comparison between EAI and e-Business integration 554 18.5 Topologies for e-Business integration 555 18.6 Workflow, BPM, EAI and e-Business 559 18.7 Integration challenges: the semantic interoperability problem 561 18.7.1 Semantic issues at the data level 562 18.7.2 Semantic issues at the business-process level 563 18.8 Business integration patterns and their implications 567 18.8.1 Integrated enterprise business pattern 567 18.8.2 Brokered enterprise business pattern 569 18.8.3 Federated enterprise 570 18.9 e-Business integration requirements revisited 571 18.10 Wrapping up: the real differences between e-Business and EAI 573 18.11 Chapter summary 574 19. Loosely Coupled e-Business Solutions 579 19.1 Introduction 581 19.2 The concept of software as a service 584 19.3 What web services are 585 19.4 Web services: types and characteristics 588 19.5 The service-oriented architecture 590 19.5.1 Roles of interaction in the service-oriented architecture 591 19.5.2 Operations in the service-oriented architecture 592 19.6 The web services technology stack 593 19.7 Web services standards 595 19.7.1 SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol 595 19.7.2 WSDL: Web Services Description Language 599 19.7.3 UDDI: Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration 607 19.8 Web services orchestration 612 19.9 Web services transactions 617 19.10 Web services security and policy considerations 620 19.11 EAI and web services 621 19.12 Chapter summary 623 20. Business Protocols 627 20.1 Introduction 628 20.2 Why are business standards and protocols needed? 629 20.3 XML technology stack for e-Business integration 630 20.3.1 Components in support of e-Business within a single value chain 631 20.3.2 Components in support of e-Business within an e-Market 632 20.4 RosettaNet 635 20.5 Electronic business XML 637 20.5.1 Conducting business via ebXML 638 20.5.2 Architectural model of ebXML 639 20.6 Convergence between Rosetta, ebXML and web services 654 20.7 Chapter summary 656 Glossary 661 References 681 Index 701